2055-Exam 3 - Nullification John C Calhoun o Held so many...

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4/2/09 Nullification John C. Calhoun o Held so many different offices o Always felt he had something to prove- tended to be nationalists (wanted to make the nation work) o Calhoun had supported the tariff in 1816- tax on imported manufactured goods o Starts getting involved in sectional politics-focuses on the south’s issues Remains a nationalist but at the same time did believe that the south needed to keep a watchful eye on its interests Interesting he came from South Carolina bc the south did feel their interests were being sacrificed, but south Carolina felt this especially South Carolina and the 1828 tariff o South Carolina and Calhoun start turning against the tariff- South is turning against it (south had been fighting the tariff) o 1828- new tariff passed o industry was emerging in the north, not so much in the south (they focused on plantation agriculture) tariff designed to facilitate industry- hurt the south (inflated the price of imported manufacturing goods) o one more reason south opposed the tariff: United States was throwing up a trade barriers with the new tariff- run the risk of retaliation At the time, the main export good was cotton (U.S. was not exporting manufactured goods, they were exporting farm goods) South would get hurt even more bc European countries would stop buying cotton being produced in the south o South Carolina is especially sensitive to this- relied more on plantation agriculture more than any other states o Majority of South Carolina’s population was slaves o South Carolina’s plantations were not as profitable as they used to be: not as fertile anymore o When the tariff is passed, SC responds with a publication: SC Exposition and Protest Attack on 1828 tariff Explained why the tariff hurt SC and the South and that the tariff was unconstitutional Spelled out a doctrine of nullification
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Theory of nullifications o Described as a constitutional way for a state to respond to a national law that a state believed to be unconstitutional o If a state believed a national law to be unconstitutional, that state would call a convention; delegates to the convention would be elected o If at the convention the delegates decided that law was constitutional, then the debate ended there o If they decided it was unconstitutional, that state would ignore that national law: state would declare that law null o Then the other states has to respond: determine whether they thought the national law was constitutional, and if they decided it was constitutional then the nullifying state had to decide whether they were going to obey the law or leave the union Nullification Crisis o 1832 tariff did what the South wanted-tariff rate went down (but not by much- scared the south) historians believe slavery issue is a show issue in this no matter what the south does, their fighting the tariff isn’t doing anything- slowly losing political clout north doesn’t want slavery to expand
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