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Unformatted text preview: HIST 2055 Early European Exploration and Settlement and Indians------1/16 • Interpretation and ambiguity- perfect example in Columbus • “In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue”- fact • “Columbus discovered America”- interpretation For Europeans yes Depends on vantage point, purely Europeans viewpoint. 500 years previously some Scandinavians had arrived Never believed he had found America Hard to pin as all good or all bad Born into a tradesman class, by no means wealthy but by no means poor Ambitious, which was unfortunate because there was very little social mobility in Italian society Marries up into minor nobility, she dies Refuses to marry the next woman he has a child with because she is not higher up than him Theory that if you sailed west you could get to Asia- not a new idea, but he recalculated the circumference of the Earth, he was wrong obviously. Convinces King and Queen of Spain, remains convincing on the sea to his men who nearly mutiny against him. Lucky for Columbus he did find some land. Bumps into the Bahamas, thought he had found islands off the coast of Asia Named an administrator by the crown, he was an awful administrator, nobody ends up liking that, he abuses the Spaniards as well as the natives Is he an adventurer or a conqueror? I) Exploration Begins A) Events that make it possible 1) Economic (a) Europe starts trading with Asia in the 1400s • Center of trade had been around the Mediterranean sea • Overland trade- very difficult, would like to travel by sea 2) Technological advancements that allowed him to sail (a) Compass (invented by Chinese adopted by Europeans) (b) Improved sails, rudders, shape of ships- much more maneuverable 3) Economic resources available for such a big investment (a) Union of the Crowns in 1469 • Larger kingdom with concentrated resources • More money 4) 1492 re-conquest of Iberian peninsula from the North Africans, money to spend now (a) Columbus and his crew come out of a culture where they are used to fighting darker skinned people who are seen as infidels B) Spain explores and colonizes 1) Technology- rapid advancement- 1500s in Pacific, 1522 circumnavigate the globe 2) Motivation (a) Riches- will use it to build up bigger armies bigger navies (b) Christianizing Native Americans- very important goal • Spain’s exploration takes place during the Reformation (c) Glory- for the crown, the conquistadors themselves 3) Central post and the exploration parties (a) Settle down in places that have “quickie-riches” 4) Spanish conquer Aztec empire in 1520 (a) Leadership of Aztec empire killed off, and conquistadors take over 5) Conquering style (a) Didn’t try to annihilate the native population just put Spanish at the top (b) Use of native population for the wealth of Spain • Slavery (c) Government structure and bureaucracy • Pyramid structure (i) Top- monarchy (ii) Advisors in Spain (iii) Viceroys (iv)Officers under them...
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