Final Notes

Final Notes - Final Notes Chapter 10 Where did Agriculture Originate Agriculture deliberate modification of Earth's surface through cultivation of

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Final Notes Chapter 10 Where did Agriculture Originate? - Agriculture – deliberate modification of Earth’s surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain - Crop – any plant cultivated by people - Origins – not well known Hunters and Gatherers o Men hunt and women gather edible plants o Small groups as resources are limited o Traveled frequently o May have initiated agriculture through small canalization of water and dunging edible native vegetation Invention of Agriculture o vegetative planting – replanting from cuttings earliest form o see agriculture – planting using seeds later form Vegetative Planting Hearths - southeast Asia - western Africa - northwestern South America Seed Agriculture Hearths - Ethiopia - Pakistan - Central America - West South America - China Classifying Agricultural Regions - Subsistence Agriculture (LDCs) – production of food primarily for one’s own family - Commercial Agriculture – MDCs – production of food primarily for sale off the farm 5 Distinguishing Characteristics » Purpose of farming - personal/family or for sale and processing » Percentage of farmers in the labor force - less than 10% in MDCs and over 50% in LDCs » Use of machinery - allows much higher levels of productivity » Farm size - very large in MDCs, makes use of expensive machinery Concern for loss of 500,000 acres of prime agricultural land » Relationship of farming to other businesses – termed agribusiness as farming is one part of the large food-processing industry Agriculture in LDCs Shifting cultivation Characteristics of shifting cultivation land cleared by slash and burn adds nutrients to deficient soils cultivate crops with little technology on any given area for only a short time and then leave it fallow for several years Future of shifting cultivation land is owned by the village, and allocated to families today is considered efficient and sustainable as its impacts are quickly neutralized can only support smaller populations
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Pastoral nomadism – subsistence agriculture based on the herding of domesticated animals Characteristics of pastoral nomadism depend on animals for survival, however mostly consume grain acquired from sedentary farmers or planted by part of group that stays behind while the rest range with herds prestige of animals and suitability of the terrain influences the choice for herding pattern of wandering is within the territorialities established by nomadic groups - Transhumance – seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas Future of pastoral nomadism Intensive subsistence agriculture implies farmers are spending more time to subsist on smaller parcels of land driven by the lack of land, forcing individuals to substitute additional labor for increased productivity Types wet rice – plant rice in dry land nurseries very successful flooded fields (paddies)
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course GCU 102 taught by Professor Judkins during the Fall '07 term at ASU.

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Final Notes - Final Notes Chapter 10 Where did Agriculture Originate Agriculture deliberate modification of Earth's surface through cultivation of

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