Building Dividers With Flipflop

# Building Dividers With Flipflop - BUILDING Basic Designs...

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B UILDING DIVIDERS WITH FLIP - FLOPS Basic Designs Table of content Subtract .................................................................... ...................... 2 Preface by the author ................................................................. ..... 2 Announcement ......................................................................... ....... 2 What is a divider? ............................................................................ 3 How to design a divider? ................................................................. 3 Build 1/2 n -frequency dividers with J-K flip-flop ................................ 4 Build dividers with D flip-flop loops ................................................. 4 D flip-flop loops ................................................................ ......... 4 Procedure of design .................................................................. 4 Example I: 1/3-frequency divider .............................................. 5 Example II: 1/5-frequency divider ............................................. 7 Example III: Input circuits for 1/7-frenquency and 1/13- frequency divider ........................................................... ........... 8 Build dividers with J-K flip-flops ....................................................... 9 Basic thought ..................................................................... ....... 9 Procedure of design .................................................................. 9 Example IV: 1/3-frenquency divider ........................................ 10 Example V: 1/5-frenquency divider ......................................... 11 Cascade ............................................................... ......................... 11 Example VI: 1/1000-frenquency divider .................................. 12 Last part .................................................................................... .... 12 Reference ............................................................................ .......... 12 Total Words: 0

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2009-2-4 S UBTRACT In this essay, we will introduce two method of building a divider with flip-flops. One is called D flip-flop loop, another is achieved by J-K flip-flops. For a divider, we will discuss the input circuit and output circuit independently. The input circuit may decide the function of the divide (or say the frequency of output signal) and the output circuit may decide the duty cycle of the output signal. P REFACE BY THE AUTHOR Divider is an easy-designed machine, for us, the beginner of digital circuits; we probably need to design some machine that already exists in order to obtain some basic experience. I have just done this work independently and enjoy the happiness of researching for the first time. Thus, I write the easy, in order to remember this milestone story for me and share my achievement with everybody. A NNOUNCEMENT The figures in my essay contain some figures in my professor’s lecture slides; please obey the local laws when you copy the figures in my essay for other uses. The basic description of J-K flip-flop dividers and the idea of code system of D flip- flop dividers are my original thought thus there’s no reference at the last. All my rights of the essay have been reserved. 1
2009-2-4 W HAT IS A DIVIDER ? When we study the sequential digital circuit, we must have learnt flip-flops and their functions. A very famous application is that a counter. Probably every professor has shown the example on the left to their students: Needless to say, in the circuit, there are just two J-K flip-flops. And if we take account of both outputs of the flip-flops, we can see that the circuit is doing a counting work just like a child to learn how to count: 0,1,2,3 and 0,1,2,3 and 0,1,2,3 … Now let’s go little further about the example. The only input of the circuit is a square wave with a fixed frequency f . When we look at the output waves of each output terminal independently, we can easily find that the output Q 0 , and Q 1 , are both a square wave with a fixed frequency 0.5 f , 0.25 f respectively. Then, we can see for output Q 0 , this circuit can be called as half-frequency divider and for output Q 1 , it is called quarter-frequency divider. Thus, we can obtain that the counter and divider is almost the same machine with only difference of output terminals.

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Building Dividers With Flipflop - BUILDING Basic Designs...

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