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Orbitals - ORBITALS and MOLECULAR REPRESENTATION by DR...

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ORBITALS and MOLECULAR REPRESENTATION The contents of this module were developed under grant award # P116B-001338 from the Fund for the Improve- ment of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE), United States Department of Education. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of FIPSE and the Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal government. by DR. STEPHEN THOMPSON MR. JOE STALEY
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ORBITALS AND MOLECULAR REPRESENTATION CONTENTS 2 Atomic Orbitals (n = 1) 3 Atomic Orbitals (n = 2) 4 Atomic orbitals (n = 3) 5 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals (sp) 6 Hybrid Atomic orbitals (sp 2 ) 7 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals (sp 2 ) 8 Hybrid Atomic Orbitals (sp 3 ) 9 Overlapping Orbitals (Bonding And Antibonding) 10 Orbital Pictures For H And H 2 11 Difluorine 12 Carbon Orbitals (Methane And Ethane) 13 Carbon Orbitals (Ethene) 14 Carbon Orbitals (Ethene) 15 Carbon Orbitals (Ethyne) 16 Carbon Orbitals (Ethyne) 17 Carbon Orbitals (Benzene) 18 Carbon Orbitals (Benzene) 19 Several Representations Of Molecules 20 Several Representations Of Benzene 21 Representations Of Molecules 22 Representations Of Molecules 23 Representations Of Molecules
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ORBITALS AND MOLECULAR REPRESENTATION ATOMIC ORBITALS n = 2 2s 1s We denote the phase of the wave function by color, using light red for one phase and green for the opposite phase. Many books assign these phases plus or minus signs but the only real meaning is that they are oppo- site. Neither phase is plus or minus anything on its own but they are only opposite to each other. Sometimes when we are not concerned with phase we will draw the orbitals as a slightly reddish gray. The picture above shows the spherically symmetric 1s orbital in the ‘green’ phase. Sometimes it is more con- venient not to show the phase, in which case we can use a greyed representation, as shown below.. n = 1 1s l = 0 1s It is also possible to show the orbital as a simple loop. And if you are drawing his by hand, the loop does not have to be an exact circle. 1s Here are some boxes for you to practice drawing s orbitals in, although you do not really need boxes. As we proceed developing atomic and molecular orbit- als we will show various forms of representation. You can draw the two loops for 2s in the box below. While Lewis diagrams and energy level structures can show connectivity and energy relationships of mol- ecules, they do not show the shape of the molecules. For this we need to picture atomic and molecular orbitals. l = 0 2
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ATOMIC ORBITALS 2p x 2p y 2p z l = 1 x y z n = 2 This is an accurate representation of a 2p x orbital. This is a common picture of a p x orbital This simplified p x orbital is often useful. A hand drawn version does not have to be exact. Use this box to draw a p z orbital. We can combine all three p orbitals in a three dimensional display.
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