GCU102 Class Notes

GCU102 Class Notes - August 20th 2007 Chapter 1 Geography...

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August 20 th , 2007 Chapter 1 Geography - the scientific study of location of people, activities, and phenomena across the earth and reasons for distribution - things in closer contact tend to have greater influence on each other - things in one place can affect those in another Types of Geography - human geography o the study of where and why human activities are located where they are - physical geography o study of where and why natural forces occur as they do climates landforms Organizing Concepts of Geography - 2 basic concepts to explain why every place is unique (place and region) - place o specific point distinguished by a particular characteristic - region o an area of earth (collection of places) distinguished by a distinctive combination of general cultural and physical features - scale o portion of the earth being studied (individual to global) - space o physical of social gap between things - connections o relationships among people and objects across space 3 Key Issues - how do geographers describe where things are - why is each point on the earth unique - why are there similarities between different places on earth How do geographers address location - map = simplified, flat, scale model of the earth’s surface - map is a tool for storing reference material and communicating geographic information Scale - relationship of a features size on a map to its dimension in the real world - small scale maps (1:1,000,000) o large areas in less detail - large scale maps (1:24,000) o small areas in great detail - Fractional Scale – shows the numerical ratio between distances on the map and in real life - Written Scale – describes the fractional scale in words - Graphic Scale – consists of a bar line marked to show the distance on the Earth’s surface Projection - scientific method of transferring the curved surface of the Earth to a flat map - impossible to do without distorting shape, distance, location, direction - Robinson Projection – useful for displaying information across the oceans
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o But land areas are much smaller than they should be - Mercator Projection o Has several advantages Shape is distorted very little Direction in consistent Map is rectangular o greatest disadvantage is area is very distorted towards the poles (making them look larger than they are) Land Ordinance of 1785 - divided most of the country into townships to facilitate sale of land to settlers in the West Tools for Location - GIS o Computer system that organizes spatial and attribute data o More efficient for making a map - Remote Sensing – satellite and aerial imagery o Acquisition of data about the Earth’s surface from satellites and other long distance methods o Some can sense objects as small as 1 meter across - GPS o Satellites that communicate with handheld receivers to give one’s precise position August 22, 2007 Place names as location Toponym – name given to a place - selection is usually not arbitrary o person o origin o religion o feelings (Eureka)
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course GCU 102 taught by Professor Judkins during the Fall '07 term at ASU.

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GCU102 Class Notes - August 20th 2007 Chapter 1 Geography...

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