chapter1 - Chapter 1 Introduction to Psychology and...

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Psychology and Research Methods
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What is Psychology? Psychology Psyche: Mind Logos: Knowledge or study Definition: The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Behavior: Overt (i.e., can be directly observed, as with crying) Mental Processes: Covert (i.e., cannot be directly observed, as with remembering)
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Empiricism: The Goals To measure and describe behaviors To gather empirical evidence: Information gained from direct observation and measurement To gather data: Observed facts
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Fig. 1-1, p. 13
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Research Method A systematic procedure for answering scientific questions
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What Might a Psychologist Research? Development: Course of human growth and development Learning: How and why it occurs in humans and animals Personality: Traits, motivations, and individual differences Sensation and Perception: How we come to know the world through our five senses
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What Might a Psychologist Research? (cont) Comparative: Study and compare behavior of different species, especially animals Cognitive: Primarily interested in thinking Biopsychology: How behavior is related to biological processes, especially activities in the nervous system Gender: Study differences between males and females and how they develop Social: Human and social behavior
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p. 12
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What Might a Psychologist Research? (cont) Cultural: How culture affects behavior Evolutionary: How our behavior is guided by patterns that evolved during our history
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Animal Model When an animal’s behavior is used to derive principles that may apply to human behavior
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What Are the Goals of Psychology? Description of Behaviors: Naming and classifying various observable, measurable behaviors Understanding: Being able to state the causes of a behavior Prediction: Predicting behavior accurately
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p. 15
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More Goals of Psychology Control: Altering conditions that influence behaviors Positive use: To control unwanted behaviors (e.g., smoking, tantrums, etc.) Negative use: To control people’s behaviors without their knowledge
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Critical Thinking Ability to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information What would you expect to see if the claim were true? Gather evidence relevant to the claim Evaluate the evidence Draw a conclusion Often used in research
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Critical Thinking: Key Principles Few truths transcend the need for empirical testing Evidence varies in quality Authority or claimed expertise does not automatically make an idea true Critical thinking requires an open mind
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Pseudopsychologies Pseudo means “false.” Any unfounded “system” that resembles psychology and is NOT based on scientific testing Palmistry: Lines on your hands (palms) predict future and reveal personality Phrenology: Personality traits revealed by shape of skull
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chapter1 - Chapter 1 Introduction to Psychology and...

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