Test 2 Study Guide - Chapter 3 Population Distribution and...

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Chapter 3: Population Distribution and Composition 1) Which are the characteristics of human settlement and distribution on the planet? - about 90% of the people live on 10% of the worlds land - over 90% of the worlds inhabitants live north of the equator and less than 10% in the south - over 80% of the total land area is in the north though - 7-% of the pop lives within 1000 kilometers of the sea - population numbers decline with altitude 2) What are the four main world population clusters? South Asia, South-eastern Asia, western Europe, and east-central North America (smallest) 3) What/where is the ecumene and the non-ecumene Ecumene – permanently inhabited part of the world Non-ecumene – uninhabited or virtually uninhabited part of the world; 35-40% of the world (Antarctica) 4) What are the ways density is measured? Which is more accurate, why? Why/How is the non-ecumene becoming the ecumene? Arithmetic density – most common; total pop to total area; convenient Physiological/Nutrtional Density – population to arable land; provides better indicator of the degree of crowding compared with its potential for producing food and raw materials Other types – standard land unit 5) What is the sex ratio? How is it calculated? That is, could you identify the equation? Is it considered reliable data? Number of males per 100 females = number of males/number of females x 100; most reliable data in a census if it’s above 100, there are more males, vice versa Generally, more male babies are born but they die younger and it eventually evens out. US sex ratio is 96.29 6) What are the factors that determine sex ratio? Death rate differences between the sexes; net migration rate differences between the sexes; the sex ratio of newborns 7) What are some characteristics of the US Census? When did it begin? Was it costly? Who was counted? Who was omitted from the count? What was one of the questions of the early censuses that was eliminated fairly early in this country’s history? 8) What is China’s sex ratio? Does it mean that there are more males or females in the population? What are some other countries with very high or very low sex ratios? China’s sex ratio at birth is high (117) leads to “missing girls”; Other high sex ratios = India, UAE, Quatar, Kuwait, Pakistan; Low ratios = Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine 9) What can you say about males and females and migration? - females outnumber males in migration from rural to urban areas and in other short distance migrations - males outnumber females in long distance moves 10) What does it mean when we say (your book says) that gender roles are socially created differences between men and women? They are created when the from the differential ways in which roles are assigned to each sex; early educational opportunities 11) How do population geographers break down age cohorts to more easily discuss population patterns and trends?
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