CH 301 - ch 12 power point - Fall 2007 - Brodebelt

CH 301 - ch 12 power point - Fall 2007 - Brodebelt -...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 12: Atoms: The Quantum World KEY POINTS Electromagnetic Radiation Quantum Numbers and Atomic Orbitals Electron Configurations Periodic Properties nucleus Fundamental Particles Particle Mass (amu ) Charge Electron 0.00054858 -1 Proton 1.0073 +1 Neutron 1.0087 0 The Discovery of Electrons • Thomson: Cathode ray tubes experiments; late 1800’s & early 1900’s. Mass Number and Isotopes • The mass number (A) is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons. – Z = proton number N = neutron number – A = Z + N • A common symbolism used to show mass and proton numbers is: 12 48 197 6 20 79 A Z Ex. C Ca E Au 24 Cr 51.998 The Atomic Weight Scale and Atomic Weights • Example : Naturally occurring chromium consists of four isotopes. It is: 4.31% 50 Cr, mass = 49.946 amu 83.76% 52 Cr, mass = 51.941 amu 9.55% 53 Cr, mass = 52.941 amu 2.38% 54 Cr, mass = 53.939 amu Calculate the atomic weight of chromium. Electromagnetic Radiation • Molecules interact with electromagnetic radiation. – Molecules can absorb and emit light. • Once a molecule has absorbed light (energy), the molecule can: 1. Rotate 2. Translate 3. Vibrate 4. Electronic transition Electromagnetic radiation: oscillating electric and magnetic fields Wavelength λ λ Frequency and Wavelength Electromagnetic Spectrum Energy/wavelength/frequency E λ ν • c = νλ c = 3.00 x 10 8 m/sec, a constant! h = 6.626 x 10-34 J sec, a constant! • E = h ν = hc λ • Example 1) What is the wavelength ( λ ) of light with a frequency ( ν ) of 2.73 x 10 16 /sec? • Ex. 2) Calculate the energy (E) of a photon with a frequency ( ν ) of 2.73 x 10 16 /s. Useful equations: c = ν λ c = 3.00 x 10 8 m/sec h = 6.626 x 10-34 J sec E = h ν = h c λ “Black Body”: emits a wide range wavelengths intensity depends on temperature Oscillations of Atoms/Molecules C O H H C O H H h v . . . . Photoelectric effect (vary λ ) “work function” for different metals Uncertainty Principle:...
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CH 301 - ch 12 power point - Fall 2007 - Brodebelt -...

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