Lecture 10 - WI LD-TYPE ALLELE: MUTATI ON: FORWARD MUTATI...

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MUTATION: FORWARD MUTATION: REVERSE MUTATION (REVERSION): WILD-TYPE ALLELE:
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Different types of mutations: BASE PAIR SUBSTITUTION: TRANSITION : TRANSVERSION : A G T C G T T A 5’ 3’ T C A G C A A T 5’ 3’ A G C C G T T A 5’ 3’ T C G G C A A T 5’ 3’ A G T C G T T A 5’ 3’ T C A G C A A T 5’ 3’ A G A C G T T A 5’ 3’ T C T G C A A T 5’ 3’
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DELETION: INSERTION: INVERSION, TRANSLOCATIONS:
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How is mutation frequency determined? Do mutations pre-exist in a population of cells or are they created in response to some type of stress?
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Fig. 7.4 Luria-Delbruck fluctuation test
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How do sponateous mutations arise? DEPURINATION: Since there is no base to act as a template, a base is inserted at random--therefore 3/4 chance a mutation will occur. Depurination occurs ~1000/hr in every human cell! A G T C G T T A 5’ 3’ T C A G C A A T 5’ 3’ A G T C G T T A 5’ 3’ T C A C A A T 5’ 3’ DNA replication A G T C G T T A 5’ 3’ T C A G C A A T 5’ 3’ A G T ? G T T A 5’ 3’ T C A C A A T 5’ 3’
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DEAMINATION: 5’ 3’ 5’ 3’ cytosine (pairs with G) uracil (pairs with A) adenine (pairs with T) hypoxanthine (pairs with C) A G T C G T T A 5’ 3’ T C A G C A A T 5’ 3’ A G T C G T T A 5’ 3’ T C A U A A T 5’ 3’ DNA replication A G T C G T T A 5’ 3’ T C A G C A A T A G T A T T A 5’ 3’ T C A U A A T G G C
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MUTAGEN: H. J. Muller won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work with fruit flies that showed that X-rays could create mutations. QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decomp are needed to see this pictur X Bar balancer X Bar Bar-eyed females in the progeny must contain X chromosome from the male. If X-rays induced a mutation on the X, the mutation would be heterozygous.
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Bar X Mate individual Bar-eyed females to wild-type males. If a recessive lethal mutation is present on the X from the mutagenized male, then all of the resulting male flies will be Bar-eyed. Bar
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Lecture 10 - WI LD-TYPE ALLELE: MUTATI ON: FORWARD MUTATI...

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