Final Exam Authority

Final Exam Authority - Social Psychology Persuasion...

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Social Psychology Persuasion Influence (Cialdini, 4 th Edition, 2001) Reciprocation Consistency AUTHORITY SOCIAL PROOF Liking (Similarity) SCARCITY
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Social Psychology Influence: Focus on Authority
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Mental Effort and Influence As a general rule, if we don’t have to think, we won’t. This makes sense, because if we went around consciously deliberating everything, we would have time for nothing. So, mental “autopilot” makes sense, and generally it works as a great “____________________”—a reasonable tool to use in order to make our lives easier.
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Mental Effort and Influence Influence relies largely on “mental autopilot” Some have termed this predominant state “low willingness and ability to think” (“low WATT”). Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Petty & Cacioppo, 1986
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Mental Effort and Influence So we: Follow doctor’s orders. Drive where the police officer directs us. Believe everything our pastors say. Believe everything our professors say!
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Authority Better leave this one up to the pros.
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Milgram: Obedience to Authority Psychiatrists and Psychologists predicted that about 1 in __________ people would administer the highest level of shock just because a guy in a white lab coat told them that the experiment required them to do so. In fact, nearly _______ of the Ps administered the 450-volt “XXX” shock!
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Recapping Milgram “It is the extreme willingness of adults to go to almost any lengths on the command of an authority that constitutes the chief finding of the study.” (Milgram, 1974)
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Recapping Milgram 65 % of all Ps executed the series through the maximum shock! Who were these evil, twisted people? Answer: They were normal, everyday people like you and me (well…like you at least).
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Recapping Milgram Criticism 1: Was this a ________ ____________ of people? Personality scales revealed that Ps were quite _______________ psychologically. Average citizens who answered a newspaper ad to participate in his memory research. (If anything, this was a pro-social gesture.)
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Recapping Milgram Can we blame testosterone ? Females equally likely to complete the series, including the 450 volt shock.
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Recapping Milgram Milgram makes it clear that these people were just like you and me and that their behaviors are best accounted for by an obedience-to- authority explanation.
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Recapping Milgram “It is clear that without the researcher’s directives to continue, the subjects would have ended the experiment quickly. They hated what they were doing and agonized over their victim’s anguish.” (Cialdini, 2001)
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Recapping Milgram “When he refused, they went on, but in the process they trembled, they perspired, they shook, they stammered protests and additional pleas for the victim’s release. Their fingernails dug into their own flesh; they bit their lips until they bled; they held their heads in their hands; some fell into fits of uncontrollable nervous laughter.” (Cialdini, 2001)
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