{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

chapter 8 part 1

chapter 8 part 1 - Chapter 8 Motivation and Emotions What...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–10. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 8 Motivation and Emotions: What Guides Our Behavior?
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Why We Do What We Do Motive: An urge to obtain something we want, due either to instinct or to associative learning Primary and secondary reinforcers Also includes a desire to avoid negative/harmful/painful stimuli or states
Image of page 2
What Motivates Us? Motivations have been attributed to: Instincts : Inborn forces that can operate unconsciously Drives : Uncomfortable biological states we seek to change Arousal : Desire to be stimulated (but not overstimulated) Incentives : Seeking rewards from the environment Sometimes the olympic athlete will feel sad the day after winning a gold medal
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Motivation as an Instinct Influenced by Charles Darwin Natural selection Environ. And genes are the sculptor William James, American philosopher, proposed that instincts motivate behavior Functionalism Early school/paradigm of psychology Habits help us survive
Image of page 4
Motivation as a Drive Drive-Reduction Theories: Hold that motivation serves to reduce internal, uncomfortable states (drives) Drives owe to needs not being fulfilled
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Motivation as a Drive Primary Drives Maintain homeostasis Examples: Food and Water Consumption triggers negative feedback Thermostat analogy Secondary Drives Motivate Behaviors Not Related to Basic Survival and Reproduction
Image of page 6
How Well Does Drive Reduction Theory Explain Human Behavior? Does it account for the drive to achieve or for love? Does it explain things such as overeating? Self- starvation? Can motivation to be thinner be greater than the motivation to eat food? Motivation to increase arousal in bodies (e.g. via skydiving) is not easily reconciled with Drive Reduction Theory
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Arousal Theories of Motivation Operate best at optimal level of arousal (often moderately aroused); too much or too little arousal weakens performance Sensation seekers Seek out levels of arousal higher than most Zuckerman found low levels of monoamine oxidase (MAO ) in sensation seekers MAO affects dopamine release; may cause sensation seekers to seek intense arousal
Image of page 8
Arousal Theories of Motivation People function best at some “optimal ” level of arousal Typically this equates to a stage of being moderately aroused Deficits or excesses of arousal hinder performance.
Image of page 9

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 10
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern