ch 9 part 2

ch 9 part 2 - Development, Ch 9, Part II Focus on Theorists...

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Development, Ch 9, Part II Focus on Theorists
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Nature-Nurture Issue To what extent is an individual’s development (e.g. of their personality, of psychological disorders, et cetera) determined by biology (nature) and to what extent is it determined by culture and environment (nurture)?
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Gestational Terms to Know Zygote: a fertilized egg Embryonic stage: 2 nd – 8 th week post- conception Fetal stage: 9 th week – birth Viability: The gestational age at which the baby would likely survive (with intensive medical care) if born prematurely Currently about 24-25 week in the US
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Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21) A genetic disorder involving three chromosomes (instead of the normal two) making up the 21 st chromosomal pair. Characteristic facial abnormalities, increased risk of heart deformities, mental retardation (all varying degrees) ALL develop Alzheimer’s in by their 40’s if they live that long.
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Teratogens Environmental factors (e.g. drugs, radiation, communicable diseases) that have the potential to harm the developing embryo/fetus.
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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Teratogenic exposure to ethanol Associated with: Low birth weight Limb, head and face abnormalities Mental retardation (MR) FAS is the #1 cause of MR
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Plasticity Plasticity has to do with the adaptability of the various regions of the brain to take on a variety of functions. Brain plasticity helps a person recover from injury to the brain, and the more “plastic” the brain is, the more recovery can be expected. In general, younger brains are more plastic than older brains.
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Sensory Development: Seeing Vision: Babies are very nearsighted (myopic) at birth They have a hard time focusing due to lack of “convergence” (of the eyeballs) Young babies prefer to look at faces There is evidence that they can recognize their mother’s face by 3 months of age. By 6 months (when mobility kicks in), babies show apprehension on the “visual cliff.”
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Sensory Development: Hearing Audition: Fetuses react to sound around 20 weeks in utero. Babies recognize their mothers’ voices at
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ch 9 part 2 - Development, Ch 9, Part II Focus on Theorists...

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