ch 8 part 2 - Motivation and Emotions: What Guides Our...

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Unformatted text preview: Motivation and Emotions: What Guides Our Behavior? The Big Picture: What Happens When Motives Go Away? The Big Picture: Why We Do What We Do Motive tendency to desire, seek out positive incentives/rewards and to avoid negative outcomes Motives serve to protect us eat, drinks, engage in some detrimental behavior When motives go astray The story of Marya, a child with bulimia and anorexia Toren teenage alcoholic Theories About Motivation Various ways motivation has been explained Instincts: inborn forces that direct behavior Drives: uncomfortable biological states seek to change Arousal: desire to maintain optimal level Incentives: seek rewards from world No one view complete in itself Motivation as an Instinct Influenced by Charles Darwin/theory of natural selection William James, American psychologist, proposed that instincts motivate behavior Form habits that fulfill daily needs Motivation as a Drive Drive-reduction theories: motivation comes from desire to reduce internal, uncomfortable, state (drive) when needs not fulfilled Primary drives maintain homeostasis/equilibrium such as food, water Negative feedback loop: information systems monitor bodily process, adjust accordingly Secondary drives motivate behaviors not related to biological needs Learning and experience Does Drive Reduction Theory Really Explain Our Behavior? Does it sufficiently explain things like achievement or desire for love Does it explain things such as overeating? Eating disorders? At times motivated to increase (not decrease) arousal in bodies (riding a roller coaster); not explained by drive reduction Arousal Theories of Motivation Operate best at optimal level of arousal (often moderately aroused); too much or too little arousal weakens performance Sensation seekers Seek out levels of arousal higher than most Zuckerman found low levels of monoamine oxidase (MAO) in sensation seekers MAO affects dopamine release; may cause sensation seekers to seek intense arousal Incentive Theories of Motivation Incentives are things that motivate to action Extrinsic motivation is behavior that is motivated from outside (praise, material items) Pushed or pulled Intrinsic motivation are incentives that come from within (feeling good about self, pride in accomplishment) Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Hierarchy of needs Basic human needs: physiological, safety and security Psychological needs: belongingness and love, esteem Self-fulfillment needs: self-actualization and transcendence Lower needs need to be met first before can meet higher need Hierarchy not supported by research but still used in business, marketing, etc. Hunger and Thirst: What Makes Us Eat and Drink Eating is most fundamental motivation, ensures survival Motivation to eat remains strong even when we fight it (e.g. eating disorders) Set point weight our body attempts to maintain Hunger and Feedback in the Body...
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This note was uploaded on 09/12/2010 for the course PSYC 86-407 taught by Professor Vandellen during the Spring '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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ch 8 part 2 - Motivation and Emotions: What Guides Our...

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