Ch 7 - Cognition, Language, and Intelligence: How Do We...

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Cognition, Language, and Intelligence: How Do We Think?
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Problem-Solving: Algorithms and Heuristics Algorithm: Method of problem solving that _________________ leads to correct solution Takes time Is Effortful _______________________: Mental short-cuts Not always accurate so why use? Saves time and effort Do not always know correct algorithm
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W illingness A nd A bility to T hink: WATT s UP?! Proposed in the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of Persuasion When people are thoroughly engaged mentally, they have HIGH willingness and ability to think (i.e. they are HIGH WATT) In HIGH WATT mode, people focus on the quality of arguments and critically analyze a situation.
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W illingness A nd A bility to T hink: WATT s UP?! However, the world is just WAAAAY too stimulating for us to go around cognitively processing everything to death. If we expended vast amounts of cognitive effort on everything from buying coffee to selecting mates to diversifying our stock portfolio, we would simply run out of mental steam and probably get eaten by wolves. Enter LOW WATT thinking
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W illingness A nd A bility to T hink: WATT s UP?! LOW WATT thinking is characterized by being influenced and persuaded by heuristics —easy, convenient cognitive “___________ ____ ____________” Heuristics are valuable because they save us mental energy and are often right…but…
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The Availability Heuristic The more easily we can recall memory for an event, the more __________________ we estimate the event to be
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The Representativeness Heuristic Judging whether or not an object, event, or person belongs in a particular category Make judgments based on concept of category (muscular men are firemen or athletes but not salesmen or accountants) Can lead to prejudice by influencing judgments even in absence of experience However, heuristics can lead to correct judgments
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Obstacles to Problem Solving ____________________ Fixedness – only being able to see objects in familiar roles Limits ability to solve problems Mental ____________ – over-reliance on strategies that have worked in past Help negotiating these obstacles: Allow an incubation period: period of not working on problem; come back fresh
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Cognitive Maps Knowledge about geography of your world May be North Campus if you’re a squirrel or chipmunk May be the Eastern US if you’re a truck driver May be the entire globe if you’re an airline pilot Research shows that our maps are: Highly Useful Highly ________________________
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Cognitive Maps We store ______________________ visual images and combine those with _________________ knowledge (words)
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How does one define intelligence? Related to ___adaptation__? What behaviors are the most adaptive in the environment in which our species evolved? Is intelligence “now” the same as intelligence “then?” What types of intelligence may have been more important historically?
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The Birth of Intelligence Assessment Francis ____Galton__ (late 1800’s) Half cousin of Darwin Popularized “____eugenics______”, a social philosophy advocating human selective breeding.
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This note was uploaded on 09/12/2010 for the course PSYC 86-407 taught by Professor Vandellen during the Spring '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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Ch 7 - Cognition, Language, and Intelligence: How Do We...

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