CH 5 pt 2 - Ch 5: How Do We Learn? Part II: Learning...

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Unformatted text preview: Ch 5: How Do We Learn? Part II: Learning Through Outcomes Instrumental / Operant Conditioning: Learning from Consequences of Behaviors Instrumental conditioning learning from consequences of behavior (e.g. positive comments from others) Powerful means of learning E. L. Thorndikes Law of Effect Cats learned to associate behavior (tripping mechanism) with consequence of behavior (getting out of box) The Law of Effect states that behaviors that lead to positive, satisfying consequences will be strengthened. Behaviors that lead to negative, discomforting consequences will be weakened and less likely to be emitted. Skinner and Operant Conditioning Skinner extended Thorndikes work Didnt like satisfying state of affairs Animals learn to perform (or avoid performing) a certain behavior by operating on the environment. The Skinner Box (operant chamber) The dependent variable is how many times the animal performs the behavior of interest (e.g. lever press) Operant Conditioning Terms ______________________ (operant response) : A behavior that does something to the world. The operant operates on the animals environment. If a kid whines at the store for candy and ends up getting candy, the whining is an operant response. ______________________: An outcome/event that increases the probability that a given behavior will occur again. Operant Conditioning Terms Positive Reinforcement : Occurs when a stimulus is _________/__________ following a behavior and ________________ the probability that the behavior will occur again. Negative Reinforcement : Occurs when a stimulus/condition is _______________ following a behavior and _______________ the probability the behavior will occur again. Operant Conditioning Terms Punishment : Occurs as a result of a behavior and ___________________ the probability that the behavior will reoccur. Positive Punishment : Occurs when a stimulus is applied/presented following a behavior and the probability of the behavior reoccurring decreases . Negative Punishment : Occurs when a stimulus is withdrawn following a behavior and the probability of the behavior reoccurring decreases . Stimulus Applied (Pos) Stimulus Removed (Neg) Probability of Behavior Reoccurring Increases Decreases Operant Conditioning Example One Third grader Dylan is behaving obnoxiously in class. His teacher, Mrs. Wormapple, calls him class....
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CH 5 pt 2 - Ch 5: How Do We Learn? Part II: Learning...

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