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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5 Language Only 30% of U.S. high school grads have had three or more years of a foreign language 62% of Dutch graduates know three or more languages 7,299 languages (estimate) Only 10 languages with +100 million speakers English, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, German, Mandarin, Hindi, Bengali, Arabic, and Japanese Importance of Language Language - a system of communication through speech, a collection of sounds that a group of people understand to have the same meaning Literary tradition or written form accompanies most but not all languages Language is one of the three traits (religion and ethnicity) that best distinguish cultural values Fundamental to culture as it is the means in which it is communicated Closely linked to migration and interaction of peoples Globalization has given rise to English as a common language, threatening the demise of local languages with few speakers Origin, Diffusion of English Origin and diffusion of English Predominance of English comes from widespread colonization Origin of English from repeated invasions and linguistic mixing (Celtic and pre-Celtic roots, Germanic, Viking?, French) Celts, 2000 BC Germanic tribes (Angles, Jutes, Saxons) Vikings (little perceptible influence) Norman invasion, 1066 AD English Dialects Dialect regional variation of language Dialects in England, think Harry Potter Different regions of settlement for invading powers British & American English Isolation with many new discoveries following colonial period Dialects in the United States Settlement patterns with new immigrants being influenced by existing settlements Isogloss a word-usage boundary The Indo-European Language Family Language family collection of languages related through a common ancestral language (beyond archeology) Language branch a collection of languages related through a common ancestral language (archeological) within a language family Language group a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in recent past Branches of Indo-European Germanic branch, Indo-Iranian branch, Balto-Slavic branch, Romance branch Creole language that results from the mixing of colonizers language with indigenous language Origin and Diffusion of Indo-European Proto-Indo-European ancestral language Theorized based on shared word roots Believed to have originated in cold climate, removed from oceans Diverging theories on origins Krugan (diffusion through force) Nomadic warriors from Kazakhstan (4300 BC) Anatolian (diffusion through peaceful spread of agricultural technologies) Origin of agricultural innovation from Turkey (6700 BC) Distribution of Other Language Families Other language families Sino-Tibetan language family Other East and Southeast Asian language families Afro-Asiatic language family Altaic and Uralic language families...
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course GCU 102 taught by Professor Judkins during the Fall '07 term at ASU.
- Fall '07