15-Tree Physiology-FUL-SHP1 - Tree Physiology 27, 649659...

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Summary The fruit canning industry processes large quanti- ties of the clingstone varieties of peach ( Prunus persica L. Batch). The occurrence of split-pit formation—the opening of the pit and sometimes splitting of the fruit—causes deteriora- tion of canned fruit quality. The frequency of split-pit forma- tion is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To in- crease understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying split-pit formation in peach, we cloned and characterized the PPERFUL and PPERSHP genes that are homologues to the genes FRUITFULL and SHATTERPROOF , respectively, which are involved in fruit splitting (pod shattering) in Arabi- dopsis thaliana . The deduced amino acid sequences of the two genes had high homology with members of the MADS-box family of transcription factors, and particularly with other members of the FUL-like family of A-type MADS-box pro- teins and PLENA-like family of C-type MADS-box proteins, respectively. PPERFUL and PPERSHP were expressed throughout fruit development from full anthesis until fruit har- vest. Differences in the mRNA abundance of each gene were compared in a split-pit sensitive and a split-pit resistant variety. Results suggested that temporal regulation of PPERFUL and PPERSHP expression may have an effect on the split-pit pro- cess. Keywords: MADS-box genes, peach fruit development, RCA- RACE. Introduction Deterioration of canned peach fruit quality can occur because of the presence of small pit fragments originating from split- pits during processing. Split-pit formation appears mainly along the suture during stage 2 of fruit growth, which starts 40 days after full anthesis, and may be followed by heavy seed exposure, seed abortion and fruit drop when it happens early and severely (Davis 1941). Any treatment that promotes fruit growth at the start of pit hardening, such as N 2 fertilization and excessive thinning, tends to increase the number of split-pits (Claypool et al. 1972, Nakano and Nakamura 2002, O’Malley and Proctor 2002). Early maturing varieties are particularly prone to split pits, because pit hardening occurs relatively late in these varieties. Understanding the genetic factors underly- ing peach split-pit sensitivity may provide the means for breeding resistant varieties and for identifying molecular markers that could help improve agronomic practices that minimize the occurrence of split-pit formation. The fruit is a complex structure unique to flowering plants that is responsible for maturation and dispersal of the seed. Fruit dehiscence is a common mechanism achieving seed dis- persal, the control of which is an important trait in many crop plants, such as Brassica napus L., where premature seed dis- persal leads to significant yield losses (Østergaard et al. 2006). In the last few years, great progress has been made in identify-
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2010 for the course DGPB 024e taught by Professor Alexiospolidoros during the Spring '10 term at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

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15-Tree Physiology-FUL-SHP1 - Tree Physiology 27, 649659...

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