Ch4 - BiologicalSciences4087Chapter 4 DNA,RNA,andtheFlowof...

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Biological Sciences 4087 Chapter  4 DNA, RNA, and the Flow of  Information DNA RNA Protein transcription translation
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Composition of DNA and RNA 2’OH U vs. T Physical properties OH- cleavage is hindered by – charge and by lack of 2’OH
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Monomeric Units of DNA and RNA Nucleoside=adenosine, guanosine, cytidine, uridine, (deoxyadenosine, etc., thymidine) Nucleoside 5’triphosphate = 5’ nucleotide triphosphate 3’ deoxy-monophosphate Polarity of DNA written  5  to 3’
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Natural DNAs are long sequences of nucleotides  compacted in the Cell Nucleus E. Coli  genome =  2 chains 4.6  million nucleotides in one  strand Indian Muntjak: 1 of  3 pairs of  chromosomes > 1  billion nucleotides (>  1 foot length) Human: 24 chromosomes, > 3  billion nucleotides
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X-Ray Diffraction Reveals the Double Helical Structure of  DNA 1. Coiled chains are  antiparallel 2. Outside: backbone,  inside bases 3. Bases perpedicular to  helix axis, 3.4 angstroms/ bp, 10 bps/turn, 36°/base 4. Diameter = 20 angstroms Rosalind
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Base stacking  leads to van  der Waals  interaction and  hydrophobic  stabilization Chargaff 1950: Amount of A=T and amount of G=C The DNA Double Helix is Held Together by Base  Stacking and Complementarity 
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Semi-Conservative Replication Grow first generation on 15NH4Cl Switch to 14NH4Cl, What happens?
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Formation of Helical Duplex in DNA can be Monitored through Absorbance at 260 nm (hypochromism) DNA is melted in the lab by heat, in the cell by helicases (during replication and transcription) Melting (annealing) is reversible Degree of cross-hybridization (Tm) between different DNAs indicates the degree of base sequence similarity
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2010 for the course BIOL 4087 taught by Professor Waldrop during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Ch4 - BiologicalSciences4087Chapter 4 DNA,RNA,andtheFlowof...

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