Chapter_16

Chapter_16 - Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis Glycolysis is...

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Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis
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Glycolysis is an energy conversion pathway in many organisms I. Hexokinase traps glucose in the cell and begins glycolysis Glucose is transported into cell via glucose transport Being phosphorylated to form G- 6-P
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Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis I. Hexokinase traps glucose in the cell and begins glycolysis 12o rotation; Induced fit
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Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis Stage I. The formation of F-1,6-P from G-6-P Phosphoglucose isomerase; Open chain form; Conversion of an aldose into a ketose; Form five-membered ring phosphofructokinase (PFK); Allosteric enzyme; Play a central role in the integration;
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Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis Stage II. The 6-C sugar is cleaved into two 3-C fragments by aldolase Aldolase Reverse reaction of aldol condensation;
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Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis Stage II. Triose phosphate isomerase salvages a 3-C fragment barrel consists of 8 αβ alpha helices and 8 beta strands
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Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis Stage II. Triose phosphate isomerase salvages a 3-C fragment TPI is a kinetically perfect enzyme kcat/Km == 2 x 108 M-1s-1 Loop prevents undesirable alternative reaction
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Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis Stage 3. Energy transformation: Phosphorylation is coupled to the oxidation of GAP by a thioester intermediate Oxidation of the aldehyde to a carboxylic acid Join the carboxylic acid and orthophospate to form the acyl-phosphate product ΔG˚<0 ΔG˚>0
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Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis Stage 3. Energy transformation: Phosphorylation is coupled to the oxidation of GAP by a thioester intermediate
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Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis Stage 3. Energy transformation: Phosphorylation is coupled to the oxidation of GAP by a thioester intermediate
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Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis Stage 3. The formation of ATP from 1,3-BPG Net result of Stage 3 (so far) Glyceraldehyde -3-P oxidized to 3-phospho-glycerate NAD+ is converted to NADH ATP is formed 2 ATPs formed-one from each G-3-P High energy
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Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis Stage 3. The Generation of Additional ATP and the formation of pyruvate Enz-His-P + 3- PG <==> Enz-His + 2,3-BPG Enz-His + 2, 3- BPG <==> Enz-His-P + 2-PG 3-PG <===> 2-PG
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Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis Stage 3. The Generation of Additional ATP and the formation of pyruvate ΔG (hydrolysis)~-3 kcal/mol ΔG (hydrolysis)~-15 kcal/mol
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Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis Stage 3. The Generation of Additional ATP and the formation of pyruvate Enol to ketone conversion is energetically highly favorable
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2010 for the course BIOL 4087 taught by Professor Waldrop during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Chapter_16 - Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis Glycolysis is...

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