Chapter_15

Chapter_15 - Metabolism: Basic Concepts and Design...

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Metabolism: Basic Concepts and Design Fundamental questions in Biochemistry Metabolism: a highly integrated network of chemical reactions; 1. Extract energy from environment; 2. Synthesize the building blocks for energy storage.
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Cells transform different types of energy Three major purposes for energy in cells 1. The muscle contraction; 2. The active transport; 3. The synthesis of macromolecules •. Chemotrophs extract energy from food •. Phototrophs (plants) from light
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Metabolic Pathways Are Interdependent
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Catabolic reactions --- Catabolism -- release energy Fuels (carbohydrates, fats) ------> CO2 + H2O + useful energy Anabolic reactions --- anabolism -- require energy useful energy + small molecules ------> complex molecules (fat, DNA) Amphibolic pathways -- can be either anabolism or catabolism
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A thermodynamically unfavorable reaction can be driven by a favorable reaction Two conditions for any set of coupled reactions: 1)The individual reactions must be specific; 2)The entire set of reactions that constitute the pathway must be thermodynamically favored. G = Go’ + RTln [C][D] [A][B]
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A thermodynamically unfavorable reaction can be driven by a favorable reaction A <==> B + C Go’ = +5 kcal/mol B <==> D Go’ = -8 kcal/mol ______________________________________ A <==> C + D Go’ = -3 kcal/mol
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ATP is the universal currency of free energy in the biological systems ----------> Go’ = -7.3 kcal/mol (-12 kcal in cellular ionic /pHconditions) v Go’ = -10.9 kcal/mol
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Chapter_15 - Metabolism: Basic Concepts and Design...

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