Percomorpha Lecture-Opahs, Squirrelfish, Dories, Pipefish & Sculpins

Percomorpha Lecture-Opahs, Squirrelfish, Dories, Pipefish & Sculpins

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Series Percomorpha: Squirrelfish, Dories, Pipefish, and Sculpins The percomorph fishes are an immensely variable and successful group, half of all known fish species Superorder Acanthopterygii ± Series Mugilomorpha--Mullets ± Series Atherinomorpha--Flying fishes, Order Cyprinodontiformes Order Beloniformes Order Atheriniformes ± Series Percomorpha--Ruling Perches < 13 orders (10 in Moyle and Cech) 230 + families 13,500 + species Series Percomorpha (10 Orders) ± Stephanoberyciformes ± Beryciformes ± Zeiformes ± Gasterosteiformes ± Synbranchiformes Synbranchiformes (fw fw ) ± Dactylopteriformes ± Scorpaeniformes ± Perciformes ± Pleuronectiformes ± Tetraodontiformes Ruling Perches ± Representatives in most major habitats ± Food and feeding mechanisms varied ± Common structural plan ± Most live in similar environments: shallow-water marine habitats or lakes, especially in tropics ± Most live in, on, or in close association with bottom Percomorph Structural Plan 15 rays branched ctenoid scales ~24 vertebrae NO Weberian Apparatus, photophores, or viviparity (rare) Swimbladder physoclistous or absent Pelvics thoracic or jugular Pectorals high on body Fin spines present Protractile premaxilla Pharyngeal teeth Small spines on head and/or operculum Well developed eyes Highly variable body form
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Percomorph Success ± A mosaic of characters modified in concert ± Array of specializations to take advantage of inshore, benthic habitats in salt and fresh water ± Three general categories: Predator avoidance Feeding Social behavior (inc reproductive behavior) Predator Avoidance ± Spines most important in reducing predation pressure ± Increase effective diameter and size of predator necessary to prey on individual Larger fishes have fewer predators Replace heavy armor, increasing mobility ± Maneuverability enhanced by fin placement and buoyancy control ± Many benthic spp opt for small size & crypsis (many have abandoned spines) Feeding Specializations ± Wide array of feeding specializations ± Most adaptations for preying on small inverts, food also includes ooze, plant material, and large fishes ± Flexible mouth for sucking in or grabbing prey ± Pharyngeal teeth for breaking, grinding
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2010 for the course OCS 4012 taught by Professor Baltz,d during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Percomorpha Lecture-Opahs, Squirrelfish, Dories, Pipefish &amp; Sculpins

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