Perciformes Lecture, Part2

Perciformes Lecture, Part2 - Suborder Labroidei...

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1 Perciformes: Snooks to Snakeheads Part 2 Perciformes: Snooks to Snakeheads (Cont.) (covers through Suborder Stromateoidei) Suborder Labroidei ± 6 families, 2200 spp f. Cichlidae, 1300 spp, fresh- and brackish- f. Embiotocidae, 23 spp, surfperches, 1 fw sp. in California f. Pomacentridae, 315 spp, damselfishes f. Labridae, 500+ spp, wrasses f. Scaridae, 80+ spp, parrotfishes ± Highly specialized pharyngeal jaws allowed them to diversify feeding habits Family Embiotocidae-Surfperches ± 23 spp around rim of North Pacific ± Only one spp in fresh water, a few estuarine ± Invertebrate predators ± Viviparous: young born as miniature adults (3-5 cm) ± Receive nourishment from female via highly vascularized fins that are greatly enlarged Dwarf Surfperch Family Pomacentridae ± 315+ spp. of Damselfishes ± Tropical reef fishes: deep bodied and conspicuous (abundant and active) ± May be brightly colored (or plain) ± Many defend feeding territories and promote biodiversity (gardens) ± Other spp. shoal and feed on plankton or associate with anemones (27 spp.) and have a mucus layer that inhibits sting Panamic Seargent Major
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2 Family Labridae-wrasses ± Pointed snouts ± Small to moderate-sized mouths with conspicuous outward-pointing teeth ± Solid, semicylindrical body with long dorsal fins and square or rounded tail ± Most < 12 cm (some to 2.3 m) ± ± Diurnal, many bury in sand at night ± Pick small inverts, many are ‘cleaners’ Family Labridae . .. ± Most are solitary ± But a few are shoaling ± On the Atlantic coast of the US cunner and tautog are schooling species and have sport and commercial value Male Female Rock Wrasse California Sheephead Female Male Family Scaridae-parrotfish ± Look like large wrasses ± Teeth fused into parrot-like beak ± Pharyngeal teeth solid units of bone ± Scrape algae & inverts from hard reef ± School in small groups during day, hide in caves, etc. at night Some secrete a mucus cocoon to protect selves at night Bicolor Parrotfish
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3 Family Scaridae . .. ± Color patterns change with age and sex very dramatically Males have juvenile, initial, and terminal phases Harems, sneaking and streaking ± Labrids also have similarly complex mating systems ± Gender may be genetically fixed (gonochorists) or changeable (protogynous hermaphrodites) Suborder Zoarcoidei ± 320 spp. occurring in a wide variety of habitats: tide pools to deep water, benthic
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Perciformes Lecture, Part2 - Suborder Labroidei...

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