HerringTarponEel Lecture

HerringTarponEel - Bonytongues Eels and Herrings Two Infradivisions of the Subdividion Teleostei Clupeomorpha and Elopomorpha Subdivision Teleostei

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Unformatted text preview: Bonytongues, Eels, and Herrings Two Infradivisions of the Subdividion Teleostei: Clupeomorpha and Elopomorpha Subdivision Teleostei ¡ 42 orders ¡ 431 families ¡ 23,681 species ¡ Tele-ostei = end-bone, uroneurals at end of vertebral column ¡ Homocercal tail Clupeomorpha & Elopomorpha ¡ Clupeomorpha grouped with tarpon because of superficial resemblance: convergent adaptations to pelagic life ¡ Links among Elopiformes, Anguilliformes, Albuliformes and Saccopharyngiformes are stronger: Leptocephalus larvae ¡ A thin, transparent, leaf-like larval form that drifts passively with currents Leptocephalus larvae Clupeomorpha ¡ Order Clupeiformes--Herring & relatives • Basic features: Adaptations to pelagic life (reduced visibility & planktivourous) • Silvery scales, deciduous • Compressed body, often keeled • Flexible mouths • Fine gill rakers • Swimbladder connection to inner ear ¡ Definitive characters argue for status as monophyletic group Clupeiformes ¡ Two major families: Clupeidae (~180 spp) and Engraulidae (~139 spp) ¡ 2 or 3 other families (1 sp each): 1 freshwater & 1 marine (large toothy predator) ¡ f. Clupeidae recognized by keeled bellies and silvery, deciduous scales ¡ f. Engraulidae recognized by overhanging snout & long lower jaw Family Clupeidae ¡ Herrings (Clupea ) ¡ Shads (Alosa ) ¡ Gizzard shads (Dorosoma ) ¡ Sardines (Sardinops ) ¡ Menhaden (Brevoortia ) ¡ Key roles in food webs because of high abundance and ability to feed on zooplankton and phytoplankton Pacific sardine -- Family Clupeidae II ¡ Common in coastal (neritic) waters and areas of upwelling ¡ Important to humans: commercial fishes & forage of predators harvested by man ¡ “Boom and Bust Cycles”, especially under pressure from man ¡ Mostly marine, some freshwater (e.g., gizzard shad) or anadromous (e.g., Alosa ) Family Clupeidae III ¡ Anadromous clupeids in many parts of world ¡ Shad (Alosa ): N. Amer, Black and Caspian seas ¡ Hilsa (Hilsa ): Indian Ocean--China to Africa ¡ Adults move upstream during high water, early life history stages washed down into estuaries or coastal waters Pacific herring -- Family Clupeidae IV ¡ Spawning migrations are characteristic of family ¡ Most marine spp congregate for spawning away from feeding grounds ¡ Herring (Clupea ) seek inshore areas with submerged plants or rocks to which they attach eggs ¡ Red Herring: Myth of Food from the Sea Atlantic menhaden--B. tyrannus ¡ Close relative to gulf menhaden--B. patronus ¡ Deep compressed bodies, silver sides, bluish backs, and dark spot on shoulder ¡ Schools: 50-200K individuals Menhaden ¡ Estuarine-dependent species ¡ Spawn in all months ¡ Mature at 1 yr and 8 inches, most at 2 yr and 10 inches ¡ Eggs 38 to 631 K per female ¡ Free floating eggs hatch at sea ¡ Young carried shoreward ¡ Spend 1st yr in estuaries Menhaden II ¡ Feed by straining plankton ¡ Forage for important sport and commercial fishes, birds, and mammals ¡ Two Fisheries:...
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2010 for the course OCS 4012 taught by Professor Baltz,d during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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HerringTarponEel - Bonytongues Eels and Herrings Two Infradivisions of the Subdividion Teleostei Clupeomorpha and Elopomorpha Subdivision Teleostei

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