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08 Polar Habitats

08 Polar Habitats - Polar Regions Uniformly cold...

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Polar Regions Uniformly cold environments Polar faunas resemble faunas of deepsea environments in many ways, but differences are greater long summer days with high primary production long winter nights that create and maintain ice cover temperature colder than deep sea +1.0 to -1.9 0 C Regional differences reflected in faunas Arctic ice covered sea of low productivity surrounded by land limited exchange of water w A. & P. oceans limited fauna shared with Atlantic & Pacific Antarctic continent surrounded by productive seas free exchange with world’s oceans oceanographic conditions isolate diverse, endemic fauna Arctic fishes Not rich in spp or numbers < 110 spp in Arctic America, total probably not much higher Most are sluggish, bottom-dwelling fishes Cyclopteridae--lumpfishes and snailfishes, 15 spp Cottidae--sculpins, 14 spp Zoarcidae--eelpouts, 10 spp Gadidae--cods, 8 spp Stichaeidae--pricklebacks, 6 spp Arctic fishes ... Anarhichadidae--wolfishes, 4 spp Agonidae--poachers, 4 spp Pleuronectidae--flounders, 6 spp Because of ice grinding most fishes seldom venture into shallows 15 spp of euryhaline anadromous salmonids and 3 spp of smelt (Osmeridae) and herring may be found in bays during short summer Arctic fishes ... Two endemic cods, polar cod (Arctogadus glacialis ) and Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida ) upturned mouths, barbels reduced associated with pack ice feed on amphipods and diatoms on underside of ice Juvenile sand lances (Ammodytes ) also associated with ice and hide in ice holes Arctic fishes ...
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