1-5Topic7-phytoplankton

1-5Topic7-phytoplankton - Phytoplankton Chapter 2 PLANKTON...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–22. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Phytoplankton Chapter 2 PLANKTON INTRODUCTION Events in the pelagic zone are critical to most ocean life Definitions for pelagic organisms: Plankton = wanderers; cannot swim against currents Neuston = seawater - air interface; mostly bacteria Nekton = swim against the current Types of plankton: Phytoplankton are photosynthetic (mostly) prokaryotes and eukaryotes primary producers (gC/m3/time) (1o) Zooplankton are heterotrophic eukaryotes secondary producers (2o) Prokaryotic heterotrophs Size definitions cut across taxonomy: Femtoplankton; 0.02 - 0.2 µm (viruses) Picoplankton; 0.2 - 2 µm (bacteria) Nanoplankton ; 2-20 µm (small phytoplankton and bacteria) Importance of plankton < 20 µm: The mass of viruses in the ocean is greater than that of whales Prochlorococcus is smallest known photosynthetic organism in nutrient-poor oceans. Discovered in the 1980’s, it may be the most abundant plant in the world and has unique pigment and genetic qualities. Plankton nets If plankton < 20 μm, water must be observed directly or filtered: Net plankton are > 20 μm Net Plankton Microplankton; 20 - 200 µm (small plants or animals) Mesoplankton; 0.2 - 20 mm (plants or animals) Macroplankton; 2-20 cm (mostly animals) Megaplankton; 20-200 cm (mostly cnidarians) Chlorophyll a Photosynthetic pigment found in all plants Chl a is a measure of biomass (g Chl a/m3) Easy to measure chemically Satellites can sense color in surface water and can be used to map phytoplankton distribution worldwide Figure 2.30 Algal phytoplankton: Diatoms Brown algae (Chrysophyta) A dominant net phytoplankton important to temperate spring blooms and in polar and neritic temperate waters not abundant in tropics Figure 2.2 Species of Diatoms More on diatoms: Most range from 50-500 µm Silica required for cell walls that form a “Petri dish” Rapid sinking rates Single cells and chains Good food for zooplankton Cell division rapid populations can double 0.5 - 6 times per day cell size varies among offspring Dinoflagellates A dominant net phytoplankton mostly in summer in temperate seas common in the tropics Size range; 25 µm - 1 mm Rapid reproduction Flagellated (2), unicellular with lower sinking rates • Bioluminescence common • Red tides/toxin production Figure 2.3 Species of Dinoflagellates Coccolithophores Brown algae (Chrysophyta) Nanoplankton; 5µm Dominant in tropics or high-light conditions Calcium carbonate plates cover cell Remains common in many bottom sediments Coccolithophores with calcium carbonate plates Figure 2.4 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) prokaryotes nitrogen fixation common toxins reduce food quality common in GOM Harmful algal blooms (HAB): Red tides are caused by dinoflagellates population densities so high that the water turns red common in the GOM HAB:...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 09/13/2010 for the course BIOL 4262 taught by Professor Stickle during the Spring '10 term at LSU.

Page1 / 76

1-5Topic7-phytoplankton - Phytoplankton Chapter 2 PLANKTON...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 22. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online