1-4 Environmental_Factor_Variation_in_the_Ocean

1-4 Environmental_Factor_Variation_in_the_Ocean -...

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Unformatted text preview: Environmental Factor Variation in the Ocean Environmental Factor Gradients Mechanisms of Adaptation Environmental Factors Considered Water Temperature Salinity Dissolved Oxygen Dissolved CO 2 pH Nutrients Pressure Environmental Factor Gradients Physical Factors Temperature Salinity Light Waves Wind Water Moisture Soil Structure Water Currents Fire Chemical and Biological Factors Chemical Factors Dissolved Gases Trace Salts Trace Organics pH Biological Factors Food Crowding Dispersal Predation Mechanisms of Adaptation Acclimation vs. Acclimitazation Time Course of Adaptation Terminology on Adaptation Kinne Krebs Adaptation may be by acclimation or acclimitization Acclimation occurs in laboratory experiments where only the experimental variable is altered. Acclimitization occurs in nature where many environmental factors occur simultaneously in an unknown manner. Time Course of Adaptation to Altered Environmental Conditions Direct Responses = Shock Reactions rate functions change rapidly with a change in environmental factor intensity and persist for hours Compensatory Acclimation occurs during days or weeks of exposure to an altered intensity of an environmental factor Selection over Many Generations Results in genetic variants adapted to a particular environmental factor regime. Species or population differences can exist on a latitudinal basis Classification of Environmental Factor Intensity (Kinne) Zone of Resistance Adaptation (Zone of Lethality) the extremes of an environmental factor gradient which results in an organisms death Zone of Capacity Adaptation (Zone of Compatibility) the intermediate range of an environmental factor gradient where the organism can survive Levels of Biological Organization: Krebs Model The range of conditions under which life is possible for a factor Water Temperature The Master Environmental Factor Body temperature Range (Tb) Active animals = -2 o C 50 o C Quiescent stages = -200 o C 70 o C Archea- > 90 o C Environmental Considerations of Heat Temperature = heat intensity Water = -1.86 -100 o C -Surface of hot springs-350 o C Hydrothermal vents Land = -89.2 -80 o C Temperature is more variable on land In general, life activities only occur between: - 60 -50 o C on land -1.86 - 49 o C in seawater Environmental Considerations of Heat Capacity = the amount of heat present in an object; measured in: Calories the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g water 1 o C Joules 4.18 x calories Heat capacity water has a much higher heat capacity than air so changes in water temperature lag behind changes in air temperature on a daily and seasonal basis Water: Heat of fusion = ice to water = 80 cal/g 0 100 o C = 1 cal/g Heat of vaporization = water to vapor = 540 cal/g Relationships between Temperature and Biota...
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1-4 Environmental_Factor_Variation_in_the_Ocean -...

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