1-1 Ecological Zonation in the Sea

1-1 Ecological Zonation in the Sea - Ecological Zonation on...

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Unformatted text preview: Ecological Zonation on Earth Hypsographic Curve of the Earth Earth is dominated by oceans 71% of the earths surface climate is driven by the oceans oceans contain the most diverse and varied biota on earth Some ocean statistics: 1370 x 10 6 km 3 of water in oceans southern hemisphere has 80% of the total ocean mean ocean depth = 3800 m 84% of the bottom > 2000 m We know most about water < 100 m and discoveries are infrequent in the deep Figure 1.5 Ocean basins are interconnected: Pacific Ocean: Largest ocean, least influenced by land masses Numerous island chains with many volcanoes on the margin High salinity and deep Atlantic Ocean Narrow, bordered by marginal seas (Gulf of Mexico, Baltic, Mediterranean) Shallow and most of the worlds major rivers (Amazon, Mississippi, Nile, Congo) enter the Atlantic Most influenced by rivers and low salinity Indian Ocean similar in size to the Atlantic but deeper Arctic Ocean uniquely ice covered at the pole smallest of the oceans Southern (Antarctic) Ocean subtropical convergence of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian separates this ocean strong winds at 40-60 o S latitude create surface currents that ring the basin Figure 1.5 Many seas and fjords occur at the margins of the oceans These bodies are highly variable in salinity, circulation pattern and size Topographic features: Continental shelf...
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1-1 Ecological Zonation in the Sea - Ecological Zonation on...

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