2-5 Metabolic Rates in the Deep Sea (Guest)

2-5 Metabolic Rates in the Deep Sea (Guest) - Click to edit...

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Unformatted text preview: Click to edit Master subtitle style The Deep Sea Metabolic Rates 9/14/10 Are there patterns in the respiratory rates of deep-living taxa with depth? If there are patterns, what factors are responsible? 9/14/10 Biological and ecological factors may affect respiration • Locomotory ability • Foraging mode • Vertical migration Metabolic rates • Energy requirements for the habitat Rates of biological activity in the deep sea • Physical and biological environmental factors – Selecting for the metabolic rates found for deep-sea animals • Biochemical adjustments in deep-sea animals – Cause the metabolic rates to fit the constraints (or opportunities) of the environment Deep sea • Alternative definitions • Depths below 200 m – Species gradient • Depths below 1000 m – Constant temperature – No sunlight Characteristics • Cold, constant temperatures (approximately 0 to 4°C) • No sunlight – No primary production from photosynthesis at depth • Elevated hydrostatic pressure – An increase of 1 atm for every 10 m depth increase Deep-sea species • Environmental pressures – High pressure – Depending on life history and distribution constant or varying pressures Characteristics • Depth zones • Average depth of the ocean is 3800 m • By volume, 92% of the ocean is at depths of 200 m or greater • By volume, 78.5% of the ocean is at depths of 1000 m or greater Hypsographic curve • Distribution of earth’s surface at different depths • 70% of the planet covered with water • Average depth of the ocean 3,800 m • Depths range to 11,500 m in the Mindanao Trench Hydrostatic Pressure • Increases 1 atm for every 10 m increase in depth • At the deepest 1,150 atm • “Average” pressure 380 atm Deep Sea • Low Temperature • High Hydrostatic Pressure • Variable Hydrostatic Pressure • Low Food Input Species depth distribution patterns • Populations – Narrow depth range – Broad depth range • Individuals – Diurnal vertical migration – Ontogenetic vertical migration Deep-sea species • Environmental pressures – High pressure – Depending on life history and distribution constant or varying pressures Hydrostatic Pressure • Le Chatelier’s principle • Pressure acts on volume changes • Process proceeding with an increase in volume is inhibited by increased pressure • Process proceeding with a decrease in volume is stimulated by increased pressure • Only if there is no net volume change is a process independent of pressure Volume changes • Note it is the volume of the entire solute- solvent system which is relevant Pressure effects • Equilibria • Rates Pressure Effects • Rates of catalysis • Protein – ligand interactions • Protein assembly and structural stability • Membrane fluidity – structure and function Compressibility of water • 4% change per 1000 atm Two general classes of adaptations • Tolerance of the physical conditions – high pressures – low temperatures • Capacity for metabolic function Distribution of biomass with depth...
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2010 for the course BIOL 4262 taught by Professor Stickle during the Spring '10 term at LSU.

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2-5 Metabolic Rates in the Deep Sea (Guest) - Click to edit...

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