3-8 Life at Depth in the Oceans

3-8 Life at Depth in the Oceans - Deep Sea Biology •...

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Unformatted text preview: Deep Sea Biology • Chapter 4 • Topic 21 DEEP SEA • Most extensive but least-studied habitat on earth • Mineral deposits, ocean dumping and CO 2 sequestration are important issues • Mesopelagic, bathyal, abyssal and hadal discussed together – > 200 m Deep-sea animals: • Endemic to the deep – may invade from the shelf – widely distributed 1) Megafauna - mobile forms and epifauna large enough to be visualized in photographs – Demersal fishes, crustaceans and echinoderms – Highest biomass Figure 4.34 Deep-sea infauna: 2) Macrofauna – small body size and low biomass 3) Me io fa una – hig h b io m a s s a nd e ne rg e tic a lly m o re im po rta nt in the de e p s e a 4) Ba c te ria typic a lly c o ns um e the m o s t e ne rg y a nd ha ve hig he r b io m a s s tha n m a c ro fa una o r m e io fa una Taxonomy: • Most major groups of animals occur in the deep sea, but relative abundance varies – Crustaceans, polychaetes, sea cucumbers, priapulids and meiofauna are found in higher relative abundance compared to shallow water Sampling in the deep-sea • Sampling in the deep-sea is expensive (> $20,000 per day) and challenging • Remote sampling from ships with dredges, nets, trawls and box cores Figure 4.2 • Modern cameras, submersibles and ROVs are significant advances Figure 4.5 Quiz 18: • Name three factors that affect enzyme structure or function Unique deep-sea environment • Many conditions almost constant – Light may be dim in mesopelagic but in abyss, none (except bioluminescent animals) – Salinity and pH constant with no seasonality – Temperature always 2-4 o C on the abyssal plain More environmental factors: • Oxygen - rarely hypoxic • Oozy sediments - abyssal ooze created by sinking of plankton remains But pressure varies: • Increases 1 atmosphere with each 10 m in depth – Range from 200 - 600 atm across deep sea Quiz 18: • Name three factors that affect enzyme structure or function Quiz 18: • Factors that affect enzyme structure or function in the deep sea : • Temperature • pH • Pressure Deep sea biota often exhibit a narrow tolerance for many factors because animals seldom experience variation in temperature or pH •...
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2010 for the course BIOL 4262 taught by Professor Stickle during the Spring '10 term at LSU.

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3-8 Life at Depth in the Oceans - Deep Sea Biology •...

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