14-webOtocephala

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 9/14/10 Lec 14 - DOF 3,14 Otocephala Part 1:
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9/14/10 Otocephala
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9/14/10 Otocephala Herrings and minnow-like fishes Once thought to be separate groups, have been places in the Otocephala based on recent phylogenetic work
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9/14/10 Clupeomorpha 364 spp. The herring and their kin. Most in two families Clupeidae (herrings) or Engraulidae (anchovies) but also includes three other families Clupeomorpha Clupeidae(herrings) Engraulidae(ancho vies) Pristigasteridae Denticipitidae Chirocentridae
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9/14/10 Clupeomorpha All adapted to living in well-lighted surface water, where most species school and feed on plankton. Why does it help to be silvery in well lit areas? Almost all are open water, pelagic schooling forms, 80% marine.
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9/14/10 Clupeomorpha Have conspicuous silvery scales, a compressed often keeled bodies. Some with ventral and dorsal scutes Silvery scales and compressed body function in reducing the visibility of the fish, scales scatter light coming from above, while the compressed body reduced the profile visible from below.
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9/14/10 Clupeomorpha Have a connection between the swim bladder and inner ear by means of a narrow diverticulum of the bladder. The latter structure gives clupeids a sense of hearing that is among the most acute in fishes. Synapomorphy – gas bladder extends anteriorly up into the braincase and contacts the Grande and diPinna 2004
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9/14/10 Clupeomorpha Condition termed, Otophysic - “ear-to-gas- bladder” Increases the hearing ability by increasing sensitivity to low frequency sounds (1-1000 Hz) Tail beats of other fish 3-20 Hz can be heard. Why would this be useful?
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9/14/10 Clupeomorpha Have a flexible mouth and gill rakers for plankton feeding. Advancements from the Elopomorph condition includes: a modified joint at the posterior angle of the jaw (angular fused to articular rather than the retroarticular) Caudal skeleton reduction (reduced first ural centrum and reduction to six in the number of hypural bones) F – retroarti
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9/14/10 Clupeomorpha Clupeomorphsare specialized plankton feeders with relatively few species but extraordinary high numbers. Total world fish catch in 1991 was 70 million tons of fish, 1/3 of those were clupeomorphs
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Clupeidae Herrings, shads, sardines, alewives, menhaden, and other clupeid fishes (188 spp.) can be easily recognized by their keeled (sawtooth) bellies and silvery deciduous scales. Often very abundant
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2010 for the course BIOL 4145 taught by Professor Chakrabarty during the Fall '09 term at LSU.

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14-webOtocephala - Click to edit Master subtitle style...

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