Click to edit Master subtitle style9/14/10Lec 14 - DOF 3,14Otocephala Part 1:
9/14/10OtocephalaHerrings and minnow-like fishesOnce thought to be separate groups, have been places in the Otocephala based on recent phylogenetic work
9/14/10Clupeomorpha (Teleostei:Otocephala)364 spp.The herring and their kin. Most in two families Clupeidae (herrings) or Engraulidae (anchovies) but also includes three other families ClupeomorphaClupeidae(herrings)Engraulidae(anchovies)PristigasteridaeDenticipitidaeChirocentridae
Clupeomorpha (Teleostei:Otocephala)All adapted to living in well-lighted surface water, where most species school and feed on plankton. Why does it help to be silvery in well lit areas?
9/14/10Clupeomorpha (Teleostei:Otocephala)Have conspicuous silvery scales, a compressed often keeled bodies. Some with ventral and dorsal scutesSilvery scales and compressed body function in reducing the visibility of the fish, scales scatter light coming from above, while the compressed body reduced the profile visible from below.
9/14/10Clupeomorpha Have a connection between the swim bladder and inner ear by means of a narrow diverticulum of the bladder. The latter structure gives clupeids a sense of hearing that is among the most acute in fishes. Synapomorphy – gas bladder extends anteriorly up into the braincase and contacts the utriculus of the inner ear and Grande and diPinna 2004
9/14/10Clupeomorpha (Teleostei:Otocephala)Condition termed, Otophysic - “ear-to-gas-bladder”Increases the hearing ability by increasing sensitivity to low frequency sounds (1-1000 Hz)Tail beats of other fish 3-20 Hz can be heard. Why would this be useful?
9/14/10Clupeomorpha (Teleostei:Otocephala)Clupeomorphsare specialized plankton feeders with relatively few species but extraordinary high numbers. Total world fish catch in 1991 was 70 million tons of fish, 1/3 of those were clupeomorphs
9/14/10Clupeidae (Otocephala:Clupeomorpha)Best known fossil fish, KnightiaFreshwater Eocene herring from the Green River shale formations of Wyoming
9/14/10Clupeidae (Otocephala:Clupeomorpha)Herring Hazard VideoFished like madhttp-//