History 102 Book Notes - History 102 Book Notes the 17th...

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History 102 Book Notes - the 17 th century was cold and wet - which means shorting farming season - leads to food shortages and starvation - population declines - Spain, France, Germany and England experience economic difficulties - This was the “golden age” of the Netherlands Spain, France, Germany, and England - increased their spending - armies grew - taxation burden triggered revolts - these revolts were mainly from peasants - Spanish and French monarchs gained control of the Roman Catholic Church Sovereignty - possesses a monopoly over the instruments of justice and the use of force within clearly defined boundaries - no system of courts competes with state courts in dispensing justice - state’s army is stronger - royal law applies to everyone in the country Absolutism - ruled by the grace of God - divine right = responsible to God alone - sovereignty was embodied in the King - kings secured the cooperation of the nobility - the key to power and success of the monarchs lay in how they solved their financial problems - maintain permanent standing armies - secret police - was not all-embracing because they lacked the financial, military and technological resources to be the only true leader - The absolutist state of France did foreshadow totalitarian regimes in two ways: o The glorification of the state over all other aspects of the culture o Use of war and an expansionist foreign policy to divert attention from domestic ills - France is the model of absolute monarchy Totalitarianism - 20 th century phenomenon - sought to direct all parts of a state’s culture in the interests of the state - total regulation Henry IV – “Henry the Great” - inherited a mess of France: o civil wars o poor harvests o starvation o depopulation o commercial activity declined - first French ruler since Louis IX to actually care about his people - statue was not torn down in the Revolution of 1789
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- converted to Catholicism - sought better relations with the Pope - issued the Edict of Nantes (1598) - appointed Max de Bethune (duke of Sully) as chief minister - Henry kept France at peace - Lowered taxes on the peasants - Introduced the “paulette” o Annual fee paid by royal officials to guarantee hereditary in their offices - in 12 years he and Sully restored public order - they also laid the foundations for economic prosperity - his death led to a severe crisis - his lawyers issued the Law of Concord in 1598 (it was published as the Edict of Nantes to be a temporary allowance of religious toleration) Duke of Sully - combined the indirect taxes - even though the number of taxes declined, the revenue increased because of the revival of trade - one of the first French officials to appreciate overseas trade - started trade with the Indies - started a highway system Marie de Medici - headed the government for child king Louis XIII - appointed Cardinal Richelieu - was the first minister of the French crown Cardinal Richelieu - set the cornerstone of French absolutism - the French nobility was the foremost threat in centralizing the goals of the crown -
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