PSC 168 Lecture Notes

PSC 168 Lecture Notes - Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Dr. Nolan...

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Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders Dr. Nolan Zane Dr. Nolan Zane
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Anxiety disorders meet one of these criteria Anxiety itself is a major disturbance Anxiety is manifested only in particular situation Anxiety results from attempt to master other symptoms Manifestations of anxiety – feelings of fear, apprehension, and tenseness. Cognitive manifestation: Thoughts ranging from worry to panic; fears of losing control Behavioral manifestation: Avoidance of fear- inducing situations
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Somatic manifestation: Changes in perspiration, shallow breathing, frequent urination, heart pounding, muscular tension, indigestion, etc. Five groups of anxiety disorders: panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, acute and posttraumatic stress disorders No loss of contact with reality; not a psychotic disorder However, cannot control the anxiety reactions or panic attacks. Panic attacks: Intense fear, fear of losing control, with somatic symptoms (e.g., intense heart pounding); can occur in all anxiety disorders
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Panic Disorder Severe and frightening episodes of apprehension and feelings of impending doom DSM-IV: Recurrent unexpected panic attacks, plus at least one month of apprehension over having another attack
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Panic Disorder (cont’d) Somatic symptoms: Breathlessness, sweating, choking, nausea, heart palpitations May lead to agoraphobia : Anxiety about leaving one’s home Lifetime prevalence: 3.5%; twice as common in women as in men
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Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Persistent high levels of anxiety and excessive worry over major and minor life circumstances (more persistent, less intense than Panic Disorder) DSM-IV: Symptoms present at least six months Somatic symptoms: Heart palpitations, muscle tension, restlessness, trembling, sleep difficulties, poor concentration, persistent apprehension/nervousness
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Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) (cont’d) Most have co-morbid disorders World-wide: Most frequently diagnosed anxiety disorder Lifetime Prevalence: 5%; twice as common in women as in men
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Etiology of panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder Psychoanalytic: Anxiety over sexual and aggressive impulses that cannot be controlled by defense mechanisms; usually repression has not been effective in defending against anxiety. Cognitive behavioral: Negative thoughts or
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PSC 168 Lecture Notes - Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Dr. Nolan...

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