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April22nd_2008 - Human Genome Early estimates guessed that...

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1 Behavioral Genomics Human Genome Early estimates guessed that humans had over 100,000 genes, owing to our complex behavior and physiology Current analyses of the human genome suggest this number is between 20,000 and 24,000 The round-worm C. elegans has about 20,000 genes Behavioral Genomics Human genome sequence finished in 2003 Two competing groups – Celera Genomics (Craig Venter) – Human genome Project Human Genome In the US, most funding for genome research comes from – NIH – Dept. of Energy Hiroshima Memorial Cenotaph Genome Sequencing Comparative Genomics Comparative genomics is the analysis and comparison of genomes from different species. The purpose is to gain a better understanding of how species have evolved and to determine the function of genes and noncoding regions (promoters) of the genome.
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2 Important DNA Sequences • Promoter – Region of DNA that regulates gene expression Coding region – Sequence that codes for a protein promoter coding region Promoter vs. Coding Region Promoter is like the volume knob, determining how much a gene is expressed Coding region is like a blue print, it contains instructions of how to build protein DNA Protein Behavior RNA “gene expression” “Central Dogma” Gene Expression Key concept – Frequently, there is little individual variation in coding regions of genes – Promoters determining how much a gene is transcribed (turned on) often show much more variability Behavioral genomics Coding Region – Function of protein (knock-out mice) Gene expression – Gene expression (microarrays) – Gene-environment interactions (individual differences in promoter regions) Knockout mice Mice that are genetically engineered to lack the function of a single gene Generally focusing on role of the coding region, although it is possible to manipulate promoters too
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