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April15th - Stages of Neural Development 1 Neurogenesis...

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1 Development Stages of Neural Development 1. Neurogenesis – mitosis produces neurons 2. Cell migration – cells move to establish distinct populations 3. Differentiation – cells become distinctive neurons or glial cells Stages of Neural Development 4. Synaptogenesis – establishment of synaptic connections 5. Neuronal cell death – selective death of some nerve cells 6. Synapse rearrangement – loss or development of synapses, fine-tuning Neurogenesis • New neurons and glial cells are formed in a part of the neural tube called the ventricular zone • Neurons themselves do not divide (but they are a product of cell division) Cell Migration • During cell migration cells move away from the ventricular layer. • Radial glial cells act as guides for cells to migrate along.
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2 Figure 7.6 Glial Spokes Guide Migrating Cells (Part 1) Cell migration Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone • Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) – In females, GnRH is the master regulator of estrogen and progesterone secretion from ovaries – Activity of GnRH producing neurons controls menstrual cycles and fertility – In males, GnRH is the master regulator of testosterone secretion in testes and influences sperm production GnRH Neuron Migration • GnRH neurons originate in the olfactory epithelium (nasal passage) • During development migrate into the hypothalamus Kallmann’s syndrome • Men with Kallmann’s syndrome develop without an olfactory bulb – Anosmic: can not smell • Coincides with small testes and infertility Cell Differentiation When cells reach their destinations they begin to express genes to make the proteins they need. This cell differentiation allows a cell to acquire its specific appearance and function.
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3 Cell Differentiation Two classes of influences on differentiation: Cell-autonomous – independent of other cells and driven by genes, intrinsic organization as seen in vitro
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April15th - Stages of Neural Development 1 Neurogenesis...

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