May27th2008 - Amnesia Learning and Memory Although seizures...

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1 Learning and Memory Amnesia • Although seizures could be controlled, a major side effect was debilitating memory loss – Anterograde amnesia: the inability to form new memories following an insult (brain injury, surgery, illness, etc) – Retrograde amnesia: the inability to retrieve old memories following an insult Patient HM • Patient H.M. suffered from on average 1 major convulsion per week • Patient treated with surgery to remove medial temporal lobes, including hippocampus, amygdala and some cortex – Operation Sept. 1953, 27 years old Patient HM: Follow up • Operation Sept. 1953 • Evaluated Apr. 1955 – Fewer seizures – Reported date as March 1953 – No memories formed since operation – IQ increased compared to pre-op Animal Studies • Findings from patient HM and others sparked in rodents to outline neural circuits regulating memory Rat Lesion Study • Lesions to hippocampus did not affect the ability of rats to learn an odor discrimination tests • Lesions of hippocampus did not block formation of new memories
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2 Classes of Memory • Declarative memory: a memory that can be stated or described • Nondeclarative (procedural) memory: a memory that is shown by performance rather than by conscious recollection Measuring Memory in Mice • Research animals can’t take questionnaires • Can’t ask them if they remember, can only observe performance ??? Animal Studies • Most learning and memory tests for animals involve procedure memory – Animals need to walk somewhere, press a bar, push a button, etc. to demonstrate that they’ve learned a task • Question: based on animals studies, is procedural memory impaired in HM? Figure 17.2
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May27th2008 - Amnesia Learning and Memory Although seizures...

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