History 102 Test 3 Study Guide

History 102 Test 3 Study Guide - Chapter 22 Industrial...

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Chapter 22 Industrial Revolution Starts in Great Britain - they have a natural river network to supply water all over Britain - there isn’t that much wood so they need to use iron - they are insulated by water - coal = a new energy source and there is lots of it Textiles - the first big industry is cotton - cotton leads to slavery - shortage of thread leads to slavery - wool and flax are hard to thread, cotton is a lot easier - get cotton from India by the East India Company - 2/3 of all coal is used in Britain - ½ of textiles and iron is used in Britain Hargreaves Spinning Jinny - great improvement - powered by hand Arkwright’s Water Frame - more complex - powered by water - can only spin thick threads Eli Whitney - cotton gin - cotton – cheaper - produce more - demand goes up - made in American South Growth in England - get much more wealthy - iron industry booms - change in work - change in living - change in morals (child labor) 2 Different spinning machines - cotton spinner - spinning gin = more efficient and faster Great Exposition - 1851
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- in London at the crystal palace - glass and steel building Move Away From Home-based work to factories - do much more efficient work - can hold the larger water frames - sends family cottage industry out of business - factories begin outsourcing labor Combination Act - made unions illegal - repealed in 1824 Early Factories and Child Labor - resistance to move to factories because less money and more work - children are cheap labor - bring children from big group homes - used to work factories together and have someone recruit people, now they segregate men and women’s labor Sources of Power - wind – not reliable - water – have to be on a coast or river - human – limiting - animal – have to clean up and feed - steam – use coal – much more efficient Thomas Newcomen - invents steam engine - at first is very inefficient - leads to more efficient technology James Watt - improved the condenser part of the steam engine Rise of the Railroads - cheaper - roads get muddy - railroads can be used all year long - 1825- the first railroad o the “Rocket” o 16 mph - start building tunnels and bridges for the railcars to go through o engineering for these tunnels and bridges becomes a profession o they are the “astronauts” of the day - Belgium leads the way in railroad industry and had a state-owned system
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Middle Class Consciousness - as we industrialize we become smarter and excel
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History 102 Test 3 Study Guide - Chapter 22 Industrial...

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