L11 notes

L11 notes - Discovered in 1898 by English archaeologists...

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Discovered in 1898 by English archaeologists Quibell and Green.8 Dark green slate. The great deposit consists of a collection of antiques (broken ore useless) bet were valuable enough that they were buried as a ritual deposit in sacred ground between two walls of an Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom Temple (2130-1785 BC). The mastaba gets its name from the arabic term mastabah — ‘stone bench’. It was a fairly simple tomb type. It basically consisted of two parts. The deepest portion was a burial shaft. This was sometimes flanked by a large group of chambers used to house the funerary trappings. This shaft was carefully sealed after the body was placed in it. The superstructure contained the offerings chapel and storage rooms. In the earliest mastabas, the deceased and their funerary trappings were lowered in from above before a the roof was constructed. It was not until halfway through the First Dynasty, in the mastaba of Den at Saqqara, that an access corridor which led to the burial chamber was added. This made it possible to bury the deceased in the tomb after it was completely finished (could be added on to during life, more elaborate decoration). Derived from the Greek word pyramis. Ancient Egyptians called them ‘mer’. The royal funerary monuments of the kings of the Old Kingdom and the Middle Kingdom, Can be divided into stepped and true pyramids — an evolutionary sequence. Pyramids are the principal, but certainly not the only, elements of the so-called ‘funerary complex’. The whole site of north Saqqara is overshadowed by the massive rectangular stone-built step pyramid of the Third Dynasty ruler Djoser. Some researchers have suggested that the impetus behind the construction of this royal monument had to do with visibility. During Dynasties 1 and 2, more and more government officials began to build large mastaba-tombs along the plateau edge. Increasingly the royal mastabas became indistinguishable from the lesser nobility. Djoser’s innovative monument was possibly about greater visibility. This was the first time that stone architecture had been used on such a vast scale in Egypt. This pyramid was the first ever to be constructed. It is thought to have been designed by a man named Imhotep, an architect and vizier. (Manetho — first to build in dressed stone. Also, said to have authored wisdom literature). Two thousand years after his death he was deified. This didn’t happened often for nonroyalty. Like true pyramids, step pyramids had connected structures which made up the ‘pyramid complex’. This included: ENCLOSURE WALLS FUNERARY TEMPLES Other features of later pyramid complexes are absent. Step pyramids predate true pyramids and reflect a different religious and theological conception. The step pyramid was not truly a symbol of the sun (like a true pyramid). The step pyramid was a gigantic stairway that facilitated the access of the pharaoh’s soul to heaven. His mortal body was not placed in a burial chamber within the pyramid, but in a shaft covered by the pyramid
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L11 notes - Discovered in 1898 by English archaeologists...

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