psychological disorders

psychological disorders - Defining and Classifying...

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Defining and Classifying —Historical Explanations of Abnormal Behaviors -Demonic possession -Physical diseases -Products of psychological conflicts -Learned maladaptive behaviors -Distorted perceptions of the world Criteria for “abnormality”: D istress, D ysfunction, D eviance Distress-judgments of abnormality most likely when distress is disproportionately acute or long-lasting Dysfunctionality-either for individual or for society Deviance-from cultural norms Abnormal Behavior- Behavior that is so personally distressful, personally dysfunctional, culturally deviant that others judge it as inappropriate or maladaptive Diagnosing Psychological Disorders -Reliability-clinicians should show high levels of agreement in their diagnostic decisions -Validity-Diagnostic categories should accurately capture essential features of disorders DSM-IV-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition -Most widely used classification system in U.S. DSM-IV Axes -Axis I: Primary clinical symptoms -Axis II: Long-standing personality or developmental disorders -Axis III: Relevant physical conditions -Axis IV: Intensity of environmental stressors -Axis V: Coping resources as reflected in recent adaptive functioning Anxiety Disorders- frequency and intensity of anxiety responses are out of proportion to the situations that trigger them -Anxiety interferes with daily life Components of Anxiety Responses -Subjective-emotional -Cognitive -Physiological -Behavioral Generalized Anxiety Disorder-Chronic state of diffuse, “free-floating” anxiety-not attached to specific objects or situations
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Panic Disorder-Panic occurs suddenly and unpredictably-much more intense than typical anxiety Agoraphobia: Fear of open and public spaces from which escape would be difficult Social phobias: Fear of situations in which evaluation might occur Phobias-Strong and irrational fears of certain objects or situations Specific phobias: Fear of specific objects such as animals or situations Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder -Obsessions-Repetitive and unwelcome thoughts, images, or impulses -Compulsions-Repetitive behavioral responses Common classifications of OCD -Cleaning, Checking, Counting, Hoarding Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-Severe anxiety disorder-Can occur in people exposed to extreme trauma Symptoms of PTSD -Severe symptoms of anxiety, arousal, and distress -Reliving of trauma in flashbacks -Numb to world and avoidance of reminders -Intense “survivor guilt” Biological Factors in Anxiety -Overreactive autonomic nervous system -Overreactive neurotransmitter systems involved in emotional responses -Overreactive right hemisphere sites involved in emotions Evolutionary Explanations -Biological preparedness-makes it easier for us to learn to fear certain stimuli Psychodynamic Theory -Neurotic anxiety-Occurs when unacceptable impulses threaten to overwhelm the ego’s defenses Cognitive Factors -Maladaptive thought patterns and beliefs
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psychological disorders - Defining and Classifying...

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