What is Personality

What is Personality - What is Personality?...

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What is Personality? Personality-Distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking , feeling , and acting that characterizes a person’s responses to life situations The Psychodynamic Perspective -The Structure of Personality: Id, Ego, Superego 1. Id (exists in unconscious)-innermost core of personality, only structure present at birth, source of all psychic energy -Seeks release of energy according to pleasure principle (it seeks immediate gratification or release, regardless of rational considerations and environmental realities “Want…take!” ) 2. Ego-has direct contact with reality and functions primarily at a conscious level -Operates according to the reality principle (testing reality to decide when and under what conditions the id can safely discharge its impulses and satisfy its needs) 3. Superego - (age 4-5) Moral arm of the personality-strives to control id’s instincts Personality (according to Freud)- reflects unconscious, inevitable conflict between satisfying impulses and societal constraints +Humans have strong inborn sexual and aggressive drives +Adult personality is largely determined by childhood experiences +Defense mechanisms help us cope with anxiety and trauma Defense Mechanisms -Unconscious mental operations that deny or distort reality (Used to reduce anxiety levels) - Repression -Anxiety-arousing memories, feelings, impulses prevented from entering consciousness-the ego uses some of its energy to prevent anxiety- arousing memories, feelings and impulses from entering consciousness - Denial -Refusal to acknowledge an event or the emotions connected to it - Displacement -Impulses are first repressed, then shifted (displaced) on to a more acceptable target - Intellectualization -removing the emotional component of a situation and deal with it as an intellectually interesting event - Projection -People disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others - Rationalization -A false excuse to explain an anxiety arousing behavior that has already occurred - Reaction Formation -Unconsciously switch impulses into their opposites - Sublimation -Taboo impulses channeled into socially desirable and admirable behaviors, completely masking the sinister underlying behaviors Psychosexual Development -Stages: Id focused on body’s specific pleasure-sensitive areas-erogenous zones -Fixations-state of arrested psychosexual development in which instincts are focused on a particular psychic theme-due to deprivation or overindulgence during stages -regression-psychological retreat to an earlier psychosexual stage-occurs when stressful demands exceed coping capabilities
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Psychosexual Development Stages 1. Oral Stage (During infancy)-Satisfaction from eating and sucking Fixation leads to self-indulgence or dependency 2. Anal Stage (Ages 2-3)-Pleasure focused on elimination of body wastes Fixation leads to messy, negative, dominant adult 3. Phallic Stage (Ages 4-5)-Pleasure derived from sexual organ—children suffer from
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This note was uploaded on 09/13/2010 for the course EC 101 taught by Professor Idson during the Fall '08 term at BU.

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What is Personality - What is Personality?...

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