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EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE PREGNANCY Placenta = organ that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass from the mother to the embryo. Transports embryos waste back to mothers system. Parental care is important, however only 65% of pregnant women receive prenatal care. Many women report feeing wonder and awe at thought of having new growing person inside, a study has shown men share the same emotions What do people expect of the pregnant mother Idealized vs realistic expectations Mothers are supposed to feel happy Some women typically expresss negative feelings fears and anxieties about the pain of childbirth Most women remain within the normal emotional range of emotions during pregnancy Many women may have damaged self esteem as the belly grows but studies have shown men are opposite and see it as a beautiful thing o Some negative reactions is caused by other people responding to them differently and treating them as a “pregnant women” Miscarriage – unintended termination of pregnancy before the fetus is developed enough to survive after birth 15% of teenagers in US experience miscarriages A lot occur in early stages outside of medical settings Study about sexism and pregnant women When applying for a job women were shown hostile sexism (she shouldn’t be looking for a job). However, when asking for help women were shown benevolent sexism. They were helped when looking for gifts( bc she needs extra help) Another study about peoples attitudes toward pregnancy with regard to social classs Expensive high status stores had maternity clothes near lingerie and loungewear, suggesting femininity and delicacy. Low class stores had maternity clothes near clothing for fat women, suggesting pregnant women are fat with a job to do. In past decades woman European women in US quit working while pregnant while black women chose to work. Has changed in current decade. CHILDBIRTH
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Social factors can profoundly affect the health of both mother and newborn. Mother who received extra prenatal care had a labor period of 2.7 hours shorter than the mother who received normal care Childbirth in other countries compared to the US is not perceived as a medical achievement. Other countries have less intervention, less drugs, less anxiety. Doula – north American phenom – woman experienced in childbirth who provides continuous support throughout labor and delivery Cesarean section – doctor makes incision through woman’s abdomen into the uterus to deliver the baby. Can be necessary but pose health risks for mother and baby Argued that rate is high bc it is more convenient for medical staff Preterm birth – birth as less than 37 weeks gestation, compared to 40, brings health risks Women with little education and overly thin women are at risk for a preterm birth Black women twice as likely to have preterm birth Family-centered approach – safe high quality health care can be delivered while focusing on woman sense on individuality as well as her family psychological needs
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