Day_4_-__Translation_and_Protein_Process

Day_4_-__Translation_and_Protein_Process - Translation and...

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Translation and Protein Processing Topics 1. Amino acids, polypeptides and protein structure. 2. Translation: initiation and recognition of the open reading frame (ORF). 3. Translation termination. 4. Polycistronic mRNAs and polar mutations. 5. Impacts of mutations on amino-acid sequences. 6. Impact of mutations on reading frames. 7. How the genetic code was solved. 8. How amino acids are loaded onto tRNAs. 9. Protein folding and sorting in cells.
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General structural formula for an amino acid
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Non-polar amino acids Valine (Val) V Phenylalanine (phe) F Alanine (Ala) A H Glycine (Gly) G Proline (Pro) P Cysteine (Cys) C (~ polar) Leucine (Leu) L Isoleucine (Ile) I Methionine (Met) M Tryptophan (Trp) W
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Tyrosine (Tyr) Y Polar amino acids Serine (Ser) S Threonine (Thr) T Asparagine (Asn) N Glutamine (Gln) Q SeH Selenocysteine (Sec) U Cysteine (Cys) C 21 st amino acid (~ polar)
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Histidine (His) H Arginine (Arg) R Lysine (Lys) K Basic amino acids C O NH C N CH H 2 C HC CH 3 Pyrrolysine (Pyl) O 22 nd amino acid (methanogenic Archaea)
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Aspartic acid (Asp) D Glutamic acid (Glu) E Acidic amino acids
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Peptide bond formation The carboxyl group of one amino acid forms a covalent link with the amino group of the next amino acid (polypeptide synthesis) Next peptide bond
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Protein Structure 1. The sequence of the amino acids read from the amino terminus N-terminus) to the carboxyl terminus (C-terminus) is the primary structure of a protein.
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Primary structures of the Hpr kinases from several Gram+ and Gram ̶ Bacteria Continued
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Continued Primary structures of the Hpr kinases…
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Primary structures of the Hpr kinases… C-termini HprK is a protein kinase involved in the regulation of carbon catabolism in bacteria, predominantly in Gram+ organisms.
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α -helix Protein Structure 2. The secondary structures of proteins are the alpha-helices and beta-pleated sheets generated by hydrogen bonds formed between the amino and carboxyl groups of amino acids located in the same polypeptide Hydrogen bonding between amino-acids 1 and 5, 2 and 6, 3 and 7, etc
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Beta pleated sheets: hydrogen bonding between carboxyl and amino groups of amino acids within parallel and antiparallel sequences of the same polypeptide. Secondary Structure Depiction in structural models
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Tertiary structure of Methanocaldococcus jannashi multifunctional RNA-binding protein Tertiary structure Folding of a polypeptide into a three dimensional structure
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Tertiary structure Different views of the tertiary structure of Methanocaldococcus jannashi multifunctional RNA-binding protein
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The quaternary structure of a protein is generated by aggregation of several identical or different polypeptides to form a functional entity. Homodimer of E.
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2010 for the course MMG 431 taught by Professor Bertrand during the Fall '08 term at Michigan State University.

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Day_4_-__Translation_and_Protein_Process - Translation and...

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