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Unformatted text preview: 1-7Freedmens Bureau- An agency, directed by Oliver O. Howard, established during reconstruction to help newly freed slaves with their transition to freedom, by providing guidance, shelter, and building such things as schools and hospitals.13thAmendment- Formally abolished slavery - passed by the Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified by the states on December 6, 1865. 14thAmendment- Gave a broad definition of citizenship, overturned Dred Scot case decision, and had clauses for due process and equal protection. Passed on July 9, 1868. 15thAmendment- Prohibits the denial of any (male) citizen the right to vote based on color, race, or previous condition of slavery. Ratified on February 3, 1870.16thAmendment- Allows government to levy an income tax. Passed on February 3, 1913.17thAmendment- Allowed for the direct election of senators. Passed on April 8, 1913.18thAmendment- Prohibition amendment. Passed on January 16, 1919. Only amendment to be repealed. 8-1419thAmendment: The right of citizens of the US to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any state on account of sex. Activist women pushed for this amendment to be passed during WWI by helping out by pushing the idea of food conservation, helping in red cross, or helping war industrial workers. Some women even lobbied to get the amendment passed. The lobbying didnt work as planned though as many politicians refused to back them up. Led to a protest outside the white house and hunger strikes, which led Wilson to back up the amendment, and get it passed. Black Codes: after the 13thamendment was passed in 1865 by President Johnson to free any man, woman, etc from slavery or indentured slavery, the people of the south wanted something to keep former slaves to still be subservient. Led to the black codes being enacted in 1865 unto freed men. It was basically slavery in all but name. Restrictions were placed and made legal apprenticeships that was like slavery. Jim Crow Laws:Put into place by the south after the 14thamendment was put in place in 1867. It created segregation between white and black Americans. They were legally separated in restaurants, hotels, streetcars, cemeteries, etc. It was later challenged by an African American in the supreme court in 1896, plessy v. ferguson. 1875-1965Carpetbaggers: was a derisive name given by Southerners to Northerners (including Union veterans, reformers, and businessmen) who moved to the South during Reconstruction. self seeking interlopers who carried all their property in cheap suitcases called carpetbags. Brought capital and skills. Some were Union vets who wanted to move to the South just cause, and others moved to advance the emancipation cause. Scalawags: ex-confederates or southern whites who supported reconstruction were called scalawags. Were diverse compared to the carpetbaggers. Included former slave owners, ex whigs, ex democrats who liked republicanism, but most were from the backcountry who wanted the slave...
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- Spring '08
- The Jungle