Study Guide - Exam 2

Study Guide - Exam 2 - Chapter 5 1. Where is Lake Victoria;...

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Chapter 5 1. Where is Lake Victoria; what is the issue that your book/PP examined relating to Lake Victoria; why is there ‘ecological imbalance’ there? (as in many, many places) Africa, second largest lake in the world. More than half of the cichlids and other native fish are extinct, cichlids ate the algae, so now there is an explosive increase in algae. When algae dies it takes up oxygen, so now the bottom of the lake cannot support fish. Diversity is gone. 2. What is ‘ecology’? What does it mean? What are the goals of an ecologist? “the study of one’s house”; study of the interactions among organisms and between organisms and their abiotic environment; including physical factors like soil, wind, rain, etc.; broadest field and is linked to every other field of study Goals – to understand how ecosystems function and to make connections among ecosystems 3. What are the levels of ‘ecological organization’? Which is largest, smallest, the rest, and how is each described? Organism Population – group of organisms of the same species that live together in the same area at the same time Community – a natural association that consists of all the populations of different species that live and interact together within an area at the same time Ecosystem – a community and its physical environment; abiotic and biotic Landscape – a region that includes several interacting ecosystems Biosphere – the layer of earth containing all living organisms 4. What are the levels in ecosystem composition (producers, consumers, decomposers), and what are their roles in the ecosystem? Examples? Producers – make their own food through photosynthesis - plants, algae, and certain bacteria - manufacture large organic molecules from simple inorganic substances, usually CO2 and water Consumers – animals, spiders and lizards - feed on other things - they are herbivores (primary consumers), carnivores (secondary and tertiary), and omnivores - some are called detritus feeders and consumer detritus, organic matter like animal carcasses Decomposers – bacteria and fungi - breakdown dead organisms and waste products - release simple inorganic molecules like CO2 and mineral salts which producers can reuse 5. How do the ‘food chain’ and the ‘food web’ differ? Which is more realistic? Food Web – straight path of energy flow - complex of interconnected food chains in an ecosystem - more realistic model of the flow of energy and materials through ecosystems - one way path Food Chain – each level is a trophic level - producers, primary consumers, etc. - not realistic because few organisms only eat one type of organism 6. Ecological niches – how do explain them? What is ‘resource partitioning’, ‘overlap’, and ‘competition’? Can you provide examples from your text? Ecological Niches
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course GPH 111 Lab taught by Professor Dorn during the Fall '07 term at ASU.

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Study Guide - Exam 2 - Chapter 5 1. Where is Lake Victoria;...

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