10 Vocab - The Transformation of Europe

10 Vocab - The Transformation of Europe - Chapter 10...

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Chapter 10 Vocabulary Age of Absolutism was the time period from 1550 to 1800, when the new monarchs in France, England and Spain began building strong states by organizing their resources, curbing the power of the feudal nobility and creating strong centralized bureaucracies. John Calvin : French lawyer who converted to Protestant Christianity and founded a Protestant community in Geneva, Switzerland, where he became a sort of theological dictator and wrote his theological ideas in his Institutes of the Christian Religion . Calvinism made an even more radical break from the Church of Rome than the Anglicans or the Lutherans as his community was founded on the principles of strict morality and discipline. Catherine the Great (1762-1795): continued Peter’s reforms and attempted to increase the effectiveness of the bureaucracy by appointing officials who had been educated in the Western- European style. She divided Russia into 50 administrative provinces, each supervised by a governor- general. She spelled out the rights and obligations of the nobility and the urban classes in her Charter of the Nobility and in the parallel Charter of Towns . But Catherine was an autocrat who, on one hand did not want to give autonomy to towns and nobility, but was wise enough, on the other hand, to keep the nobility happy by confirming their privileges and extending their rights over the peasants. Cervantes : Spanish author whose landmark novel, Don Quixote , was the first true novel of European history Charles V: King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor (reigned 1519-1556) who worked tirelessly, but in spite of his power and wealthy, far-flung holdings, was unable to dominate Europe, nor create any real Holy Roman Empire. Nicolas Copernicus : Polish astronomer who published a treatise in 1543, On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres , which broke with Ptolemaic theory and proposed that the sun was the center of the universe and that the planets revolved around the sun. Rene Descartes 1596-1650: French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist, was a major influence in this transition from medieval science and philosophy to the modern era and the scientific method. Descartes called into question the authoritarian system of the scholastics and viewed the physical world as a giant machine, which could be measured and observed. Descartes was convinced that this mathematical method of study could be extended to all human studies. He expressed his idea in the Latin Cogito, ergo sum (“I think, therefore I am) by which he meant that the external world must exist. And, if it exists, it can be studied and understood. Erasmus of Rotterdam was the leading Christian Humanist. He produced a Greek New Testament and strongly fought for reform in the Church. He iniatially supported Martin Luther but broke with Luther when Luther abandoned the Church. Francis I
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2010 for the course HISTORY History 13 taught by Professor Kamber during the Fall '10 term at Glendale Community College.

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10 Vocab - The Transformation of Europe - Chapter 10...

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