16 Vocab - Asia in the Nineteenth Century

16 Vocab - Asia in the Nineteenth Century - Chapter...

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Chapter Sixteen: Asia in the Nineteenth Century The Ottoman Empire in Decline Abd al-Hamid II: was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1876-1909). He had been installed by reform-minded bureaucrats to establish a representative government, but soon became a despotic ruler although he retained Tanzimat principles. Mahmud II was the survivor of the Janissary massacre of Selim III’s family. He was a reform-minded sultan of Ottoman Empire, who built a European style army and had it trained in European weapons and tactics. He opened engineering schools. He built new roads; telegraph lines and inaugurated a postal service. He also created a system of secondary education, which trained boys in scientific, technical and military studies. When the Janissaries rebelled, he massacred them. Muhammad Ali was an ambitious Egyptian general in the Ottoman army. He became ruler of Egypt from 1805 to 1848 and was only nominally subordinate to Ottoman sultan. Under his rule, Egypt became the most powerful land in Muslim world. His attempts to modernize Egypt earned him the title, “Father of Modern Egypt.” Sultan Selim III (1789-1807) tried to remodel his army along the lines of European forces. The Janissaries felt threatened and rose up in revolt, killing the new troops and jailing the sultan. When Selim’s son tried to revive this military force, the Janissaries rioted and killed all the male members of the Sultan’s family except one. Capitulations were agreements, which exempted European visitors from Ottoman law and provided European powers with extraterritoriality. This system worked well when the Ottomans were one of the most feared nations on the earth, but by the 19th century, these same Capitulations allowed Europeans to economically penetrate Ottoman markets because the Turks could not tax them. Janissaries : were – at one time - recruited from Christian youths. They became the elite military corps of the expanding Ottoman Empire. By 1700, however, they had stagnated, turning a blind eye on both training and technology. This loss of military effectiveness meant that the central government was less and less able to rule its outlying provinces effectively. Tanzimat or "Reorganization" was a reform movement of Ottoman state between 1839 and 1867. The Tanzimat program was inspired by Enlightenment thought and constitutional foundations of western European state. Using French law as a guide, Tanzimat reformers they passed a series of laws to nullify the Capitulations and restore Turkish sovereignty. They also issued decrees guaranteeing public trials, rights of privacy and equality before the law for all citizens, Muslim or not. Marriage and divorce still remained under Islamic law, but state courts now began to take away much of the power of the Ulama. The Young Turks
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16 Vocab - Asia in the Nineteenth Century - Chapter...

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