12 Notes - Asia from 1500 to 1800

12 Notes - Asia from 1500 to 1800 - Chapter 12 Asia from...

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Chapter 12: Asia from 1500 to 1800 Part I The Gunpowder Empires Part one of this chapter deals three separate but inter-connected Islamic empires: the Ottoman Empire , which rose on the bedrock of the Old Byzantine Empire; the Safavid Empire in Persia, which had its origins in Sufi mysticism; and the Mughal Empire in Northern India, which was built on what was left of the Sultanate of Delhi, after the desvatation of Timur. All three began as small warrior states in frontier areas and grew into complex empires, which presided over prosperous societies. They are also known by the name, Gunpowder Empires , because they used emerging gunpowder technology to build their empires. The Ottoman Empire After the Saljuq (Sejuk) Turks took control of the Abbasid Caliphate in the mid 11 th century, large numbers of nomadic Turks migrated from Central Asia to Southwest Asia. After Manzikert in 1071 many Turks seized much of central Anatolia from the Byzantine Empire. Among the leaders of these groups was a Turk named Osman who in the late 1200s and early 1300s carved out a small state in Northwestern Anatolia – at Byzantine expense. His goal was to become a Ghazi , or Muslim religious warrior. After every successful campaign he attracted more followers, who came to be known as Osmanlis or Ottomans . In 1326 came the first great Ottoman success with the capture of Bursa , which became the capital of the Ottoman State in Anatolia. During the 1350s, the Ottomans gained a foothold across the Dardanelles on the Balkan Peninsula . Because of political fragmentation, exploitation of the peasants and ineffective government, the Byzantines lost strength and by the 1380s the Ottoman Turks were the most powerful nation in both the Balkans and Anatolia. They soon made Edirne (the old Greco/Roman city of Adrianople , in modern Bulgaria) their second capital. But what they really wanted was the big prize: Constantinople! The Ottomans created a formidable military machine. Ghazi recruits were originally divided into light cavalry and volunteer infantry. As the Ottoman state grew, professional cavalry equipped with heavy armor was also added. But their strongest military force came from an unusual source. In conquered territories, especially in Europe, the Turks created the Devshirme , which required Christians to contribute young boys to become slaves of the sultan. The boys received special training, learned Turkish and were converted to fanatical Islam. The brighter ones entered Ottoman civil administration, but most became famous as Janissaries (Turkish yeni cheri or new troops). The Janissaries quickly became the elite warrior troops of the Ottoman armies, noted for their esprit de corps ( inspiring enthusiasm and loyalty to the group ), loyalty to the sultan, and their ability to employ new military technologies (especially gunpowder weapons) with devastating military effectiveness. Like their leaders, their goal, their focus was Constantinople. By 1400, the Ottomans were closing on Constaniple, but were blunted in 1402 when
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This note was uploaded on 09/14/2010 for the course HISTORY History 13 taught by Professor Kamber during the Fall '10 term at Glendale Community College.

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12 Notes - Asia from 1500 to 1800 - Chapter 12 Asia from...

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