BIONB prelim 3 - ConflictandCooperationinSocieties 17:21...

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Conflict and Cooperation in Societies 17:21 Potential conflict Benefits exist for manipulative strategies Strategies that increase the fraction of an individual’s genes in the reproductive output of  a group at the expense of other group members Actual conflict The expression of manipulative and counter-manipulative strategies Hamilton’s rule and conflict within societies Manipulative strategy is favored if: r(N-1)∆R + ∆S >0 r = relatedness N = number of group members ∆S = change in own reproductive output if manipulative strategy performed ∆R = group member’s  change in reproductive output if manipulative strategy performed negative number how much everyone else’s fitness is produced selfishness will evolve if >0 ∆R<0, ∆S>0 potential conflict what might prevent potential conflict from becoming actual conflict? Policing by others reduces ∆S r is sufficiently high ∆R is sufficiently negative
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Policing among wasp foundresses Possibility that dominant female can eat subordinates egg and replace it What prevents reproductive cheating? Policing More eggs removed, increase in aggressive behavior by the beta Alpha’s behavior was essentially constant Social contract over reproductive sharing is maintained by threat of retaliation  (punishment) against cheating Naked mole rat Highly inbred Shoving behavior Performed mostly by queen Shoving lazy workers – activity incitation hypothesis Workers more related to own offspring than offspring of other worker Would rather become a breeder than have other worker become breeder Spend more time getting bigger and less time working Queen is related to own offspring more than worker’s offspring Less related individuals shoved more by queen Bigger individuals shoved more Males and females shoved equally Work level = # times in work state / # of times sampled Two critical predictions of hypothesis
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Shoves should cause recipients to become at least temporarily more active Shoves should be preferentially directed toward individuals with intrinsically lower work  rates Less related individuals Shoving behavior by the breeding female functions to incite colony-mates to become  more active Shoving is preferentially directed toward intrinsically lazier individuals (larger, less  related) The work conflict underlying shoving behavior is context-specific Genetic conflicts in human pregnancy Birthewight increases and perinatal mortality decreases with increased maternal blood  pressure High maternal blood pressure can lead to kidney and liver damage in mother Vasoconstrictors and vasodilators are both elevated during pregnancy Placenta produces cytotoxins that damage arteries of the mother, causing arterioles to 
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BIONB prelim 3 - ConflictandCooperationinSocieties 17:21...

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