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03Pres - Humans Evolved in Response to a Challenge • ...

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Humans Evolved in Response to a Challenge Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and the Problem of Convergence Phylogenetic Trees Based on Molecular Data The Concept of Molecular Clocks DNA Hybridization as an Overall Method for Counting Mutations Molecular versus Classical Data for Hominoid Phylogeny Hominins Evolved Rapidly in Response to a Climate Change Exact Nature of the Genetic Differences Between Humans and Other Primates
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Figure S.3a: Carl von Linné (1707-1778) aka Carolus Linnaeus, was a Swedish poet and naturalist. He laid the foundations for the binomial nomenclature (genus, species) of organisms. His book Systema Naturae (10th ed., 1758) classified 4,400 animal and 7,700 plant species. The Lutheran archbishop of Uppsala accused him of “impiety” for placing the human among the primates.
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Figure 3.1: The concept of a “natural” taxonomic tree, which should reflect the course of evolution
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Defining Human Characteristics Habitual bipedalism, thumb fully opposable Paraboloid jaws, small incisor and canine teeth Exceptional brain size, ability to learn/solve problems Tool making Art, complex spoken languages Reproductive and sexual characteristics Family units within large communities Conspicuous breasts, independently of nursing Concealed estrus, female receptivity throughout cycle – Modesty Sexual intercourse in private, long lasting Interpretation: Family stabilized by sexual bonding. This promotes male parental investment, reduces jealousy.
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Hominoidea: Classical taxonomic system From Turnbaugh et al. (1993)
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Humans Evolved in Response to a Challenge Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and the Problem of Convergence Phylogenetic Trees Based on Molecular Data The Concept of Molecular Clocks DNA Hybridization as an Overall Method for Counting Mutations Molecular versus Classical Data for Hominoid Phylogeny Hominins Evolved Rapidly in Response to a Climate Change Exact Nature of the Genetic Differences Between Humans and Other Primates
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