Lecture_11_2-25-10-PDF_40839

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Total proton-motive force across the inner mitochondrial membrane consists of a large force due to the membrane potential ( DY ) DY review
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A smaller force due to the H + concentration gradient ( D pH ) review
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D G ( Dm H+ ) = 2.3 RT D pH + F DY proton-motive force review
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Step 2 An energy-driven conformational change converts L to T , T to O , and O to L . proton-motive force review
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Inorganic polyphosphate Many organisms store energy as inorganic polyphosphate , a chain of many phosphate residues linked by phosphoanhydride bonds: reminder
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Organic polyphosphate (chapter 14,Fig 14-8, p465) reminder
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4. Control of ATP Production A. Control of oxidative phosphorylation B. Coordinated control of oxidative metabolism 5. Physiological implications of aerobic metabolism A. Reactive Oxygen Species B. Antioxidant Mechanisms Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation Lecture 11
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Electron transport Summary oxidative phosphorylation respiration coupling system Phosphor- ylation H + gradient ATP synthase Indirect
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Inhibitors of Oxidative Phosphorylation The unique properties and actions of an inhibitory substance (inhibitor) can often help to identify aspects of an enzyme mechanism. Many details of electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation mechanisms have been gained from studying the effects of particular inhibitors .
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amytal rotenone Complex I stygmatellin antimycin A Complex III CN - , CO, NaN 3 Complex IV
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Cyanide ( ), Azide ( ), and Carbon Monoxide ( ) Inhibit Complex IV. Complex IV, the cytochrome c oxidase , is specifically inhibited by cyanide , azide , and carbon monoxide . The sudden action of inhibitors attest to the organism's constant and immediate need for the energy supplied by electron transport . Inhibitors of Oxidative Phosphorylation
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Disrupt the Coupling of Electron Transport and ATP Synthase (F 1 F 0 -ATPase) Another important class of reagents affects ATP synthesis, but in a manner that does NOT involve direct binding to any of the proteins of the electron transport chain or the F 1 F 0 - ATPase . These compounds share two common features: hydrophobic character and dissociable proton
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Uncouplers (eg. DNP) function by carrying protons across the inner membrane In mitochondria treated with uncouplers, electron transport continues, and protons are driven out through the inner membrane. However, they leak back in so rapidly via the uncouplers that ATP synthesis does not occur. Instead, the energy released in electron transport is dissipated as dissociable proton
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Electron transport Summary oxidative phosphorylation respiration coupling system Phosphor- ylation H + gradient ATP synthase Indirect
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Uncouplers uncouple X Uncouplers let you put the car in NEUTRAL No H + gradient inhibition of ATP synthesis X
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Let’s practice p638, problem 4
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Mitochondrial respiration can be studied in oxygraph experiments.
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